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dásně – hemoragie

The flowing of blood from the marginal gingival area, particularly the sulcus, seen in such conditions as GINGIVITIS, marginal PERIODONTITIS, injury, and ASCORBIC ACID DEFICIENCY.
MSH

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dásně – hyperplazie

Non-inflammatory enlargement of the gingivae produced by factors other than local irritation. It is characteristically due to an increase in the number of cells. (From Jablonski`s Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p400)
MSH

abnormal multiplication of otherwise normal gingival cells, leading to tissue enlargement.
CSP

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dásně – hypertrofie

Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.
MSH

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dásně – chobot

An abnormal extension of a gingival sulcus not accompanied by the apical migration of the epithelial attachment.
MSH

An abnormal deepening of a gingival sulcus not associated with destruction of the supporting periodontal tissue.
NCI

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gingiva – recese

Exposure of the root surface when the edge of the gum (GINGIVA) moves apically away from the crown of the tooth. This is common with advancing age, vigorous tooth brushing, diseases, or tissue loss of the gingiva, the PERIODONTAL LIGAMENT and the supporting bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
MSH

A loss of gum tissue resulting in an exposure of the roots of the teeth.
NCI

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gingivektomie

Surgical excision of the gingiva at the level of its attachment, thus creating new marginal gingiva. This procedure is used to eliminate gingival or periodontal pockets or to provide an approach for extensive surgical interventions, and to gain access necessary to remove calculus within the pocket. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

A resective periodontal surgical procedure that removes gingival tissue.
NCI

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gingivitida

Inflammation of gum tissue (GINGIVA) without loss of connective tissue.
MSH

inflammation of the gingiva, the tissues that surround the teeth.
CSP

A disorder involving inflammation of the gums; may affect surrounding and supporting structures of the teeth.
NCI

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gingivitida nekrotizující ulcerózní

An acute or chronic GINGIVITIS characterized by redness and swelling, NECROSIS extending from the interdental papillae along the gingival margins, PAIN; HEMORRHAGE, necrotic odor, and often a pseudomembrane. The condition may extend to the ORAL MUCOSA; TONGUE; PALATE; or PHARYNX. The etiology is somewhat unclear, but may involve a complex of FUSOBACTERIUM NUCLEATUM along with spirochetes BORRELIA or TREPONEMA.
MSH

A bacterial infectious process affecting the gums. It is characterized by the development of necrotic, ulcerated, and painful lesions with creation of pseudomembranes extending along the gingival margins.
NCI

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gingivoplastika

Surgical reshaping of the gingivae and papillae for correction of deformities (particularly enlargements) and to provide the gingivae with a normal and functional form, the incision creating an external bevel. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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vozhřivka

A contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans. It is caused by BURKHOLDERIA MALLEI and characterized by ulceration of the respiratory mucosa and an eruption of nodules on the skin.
MSH

a contagious disease of horses that can be transmitted to humans
CHV

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glafenin

An anthranilic acid derivative with analgesic properties used for the relief of all types of pain.
MSH

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kóma – Glasgowská stupnice

A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
MSH

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sklo

Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
MSH

hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium; used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.
CSP

A brittle transparent solid with irregular atomic structure.
NCI

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skleněné ionomerní cementy

A polymer obtained by reacting polyacrylic acid with a special anion-leachable glass (alumino-silicate). The resulting cement is more durable and tougher than others in that the materials comprising the polymer backbone do not leach out.
MSH

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glaukarubin

(1 beta,2 alpha,11 beta,12 alpha,15 beta(S))-11,20-Epoxy-1,2,11,12-tetrahydroxy-15-(2-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-oxobutoxy)picras-3-en-16-one. A quassinoid (Simaroubolide) from Simaruba glauca, a tropical shrub. It has been used as an antiamebic agent and is found to be cytotoxic. It may be of use in cancer chemotherapy.
MSH

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GLAUKOMA

An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
MSH

group of diseases characterized by increased intraocular pressure resulting in damage to the optic nerve and retinal nerve fibers.
CSP

Glaucoma damages the eye`s optic nerve. It is a leading cause of blindness in the United States. It usually happens when the fluid pressure inside the eyes slowly rises, damaging the optic nerve. Often there are no symptoms at first, but a comprehensive eye exam can detect it.

People at risk should get eye exams at least every two years. They include

  • African Americans over age 40
  • People over age 60, especially Mexican Americans
  • People with a family history of glaucoma

Early treatment can help protect your eyes against vision loss. Treatments usually include prescription eyedrops and/or surgery.

NIH: National Eye Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by an increase in pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the aqueous humor outflow.
NCI

A condition in which there is a build-up of fluid in the eye, which presses on the retina and the optic nerve. The retina is the layer of nerve tissue inside the eye that senses light and sends images along the optic nerve to the brain. Glaucoma can damage the optic nerve and cause loss of vision or blindness.
NCI

Increased pressure in the eyeball due to obstruction of the outflow of aqueous humor.
NCI

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glaukom s uzavřeným úhlem

A form of glaucoma in which the intraocular pressure increases because the angle of the anterior chamber is blocked and the aqueous humor cannot drain from the anterior chamber.
MSH

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glaukom neovaskulární

A form of secondary glaucoma which develops as a consequence of another ocular disease and is attributed to the forming of new vessels in the angle of the anterior chamber.
MSH

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glaukom s otevřeným úhlem

Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
MSH

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gliadin

Simple protein, one of the prolamines, derived from the gluten of wheat, rye, etc. May be separated into 4 discrete electrophoretic fractions. It is the toxic factor associated with CELIAC DISEASE.
MSH

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gliový fibrilární kyselý protein

An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.
MSH

intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin.
CSP

Glial fibrillary acidic protein (432 aa, ~50 kDa) is encoded by the human GFAP gene. This protein may be involved in both neuronal maintenance and astrocyte morphology and motility.
NCI

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glibenklamid

An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
MSH

N-4-beta-(2-methoxy-5-chlorobenzamido) -ethylbenzosulfonyl-N`- cyclohexylurea; hypoglycemic used against non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus; thought to act by increasing insulin receptor expression in target tissues.
CSP

A member of the second generation of the sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents. Glyburide inhibits the ATP-sensitive potassium channels on the beta-cell membrane, thereby preventing potassium efflux leading to membrane depolarization and subsequent calcium influx. The increased intracellular levels of calcium induce insulin secretion from functioning beta-cells of the pancreatic islet tissue and leads to a lowering in blood glucose levels.
NCI

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gliklazid

An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.
MSH

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glioblastom multiformní

A malignant form of astrocytoma histologically characterized by pleomorphism of cells, nuclear atypia, microhemorrhage, and necrosis. They may arise in any region of the central nervous system, with a predilection for the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, and commissural pathways. Clinical presentation most frequently occurs in the fifth or sixth decade of life with focal neurologic signs or seizures.
MSH

A fast-growing type of central nervous system tumor that forms from glial (supportive) tissue of the brain and spinal cord and has cells that look very different from normal cells. GBM usually occurs in adults and affects the brain more often than the spinal cord.
NCI

a type of brain tumor
CHV

The most malignant astrocytic tumor (WHO grade IV). It is composed of poorly differentiated neoplastic astrocytes and it is characterized by the presence of cellular polymorphism, nuclear atypia, brisk mitotic activity, vascular thrombosis, microvascular proliferation and necrosis. It typically affects adults and is preferentially located in the cerebral hemispheres. It may develop from diffuse astrocytoma WHO grade II or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma), but more frequently, it manifests after a short clinical history de novo, without evidence of a less malignant precursor lesion (primary glioblastoma). Two histologic variants are recognized: giant cell glioblastoma and gliosarcoma. (WHO)
NCI

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Gliocladium

A mitosporic fungal genus occurring in soil or decaying plant matter. It is structurally similar to Penicillium.
MSH

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gliom

Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
MSH

new abnormal neuroglial tissue in any one of its stages of development that grows by excessive cellular division and proliferation more rapidly than normal and continues to grow after the stimuli that initiated the new growth cease.
CSP

A general term for tumors of the central nervous system, including astrocytomas, ependymal tumors, glioblastoma multiforme, and primitive neuroectodermal tumors.
NCI

A general term for many types of tumors of the central nervous system
CHV

A benign or malignant brain and spinal cord tumor that arises from glial cells (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells). Tumors that arise from astrocytes are called astrocytic tumors or astrocytomas. Tumors that arise from oligodendrocytes are called oligodendroglial tumors. Tumors that arise from ependymal cells are called ependymomas.
NCI

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glióza

The production of a dense fibrous network of neuroglia; includes astrocytosis, which is a proliferation of astrocytes in the area of a degenerative lesion.
MSH

an excess of neuroglia in damaged areas of the central nervous system.
CSP

Reactive astrocytic proliferation associated with fibrous tissue formation, secondary to damage (trauma or ischemia) to the central nervous system.
NCI

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gliotoxin

A fungal toxin produced by various species of Trichoderma, Gladiocladium fimbriatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Penicillium. It is used as an immunosuppressive agent.
MSH

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glipizid

An oral hypoglycemic agent which is rapidly absorbed and completely metabolized.
MSH

1-cyclohexyl-3-(p-(2-(5-methyl pyrazinecarboxamido) ethyl) phenyl) sulfonylurea; a typical member of the sulfonylurea family of type II (NIDDM) antidiabetic drugs.
CSP

A member of the second generation of the sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agents. Glipizide inhibits the ATP-sensitive potassium channels on the beta-cell membrane, thereby preventing potassium efflux leading to membrane depolarization and subsequent calcium influx. The increased intracellular calcium levels induce insulin secretion from functioning beta-cells of the pancreatic islet tissue and reduces blood glucose levels.
NCI

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globiny

protein constituent of hemoglobin; also used for any member of a group of proteins similar to the typical globin; do not confuse with GLOBULIN.
CSP

A superfamily of proteins containing the globin fold which is composed of 6-8 alpha helices arranged in a characterstic HEME enclosing structure.
MSH

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