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buněčná adheze

adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.
CSP

The attachment of a cell, either to another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix, via cell adhesion molecules. [GOC:hb, GOC:pf]
GO

The close adherence (bonding) to adjoining cell surfaces.
NCI

A cellular process initiated by cell adhesion molecules which results in the attachment of a cell to either another cell or to an underlying substrate such as the extracellular matrix.
NCI

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molekuly buněčné adheze

Surface ligands, usually glycoproteins, that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion. Their functions include the assembly and interconnection of various vertebrate systems, as well as maintenance of tissue integration, wound healing, morphogenic movements, cellular migrations, and metastasis.
MSH

diverse family of extracellular (e.g., laminin) and cell surface (e.g., NCAM) glycoproteins involved in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, recognition, activation, and migration.
CSP

A diverse family of cell surface and extracellular glycoproteins involved in cell-cell adhesion, cell-extracellular matrix adhesion, recognition, and activation. There are four main classes of cell adhesion molecules: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and immunoglobulin-like adhesion molecules.
NCI

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molekuly buněčné adheze neuronové

Surface ligands that mediate cell-to-cell adhesion and function in the assembly and interconnection of the vertebrate nervous system. These molecules promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism. These are not to be confused with NEURAL CELL ADHESION MOLECULES, now known to be expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types in addition to nervous tissue.
MSH

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buňky – agregace

The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.
MSH

phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type; also in vivo massing of cells.
CSP

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buňky – stárnutí

The decrease in the cell`s ability to proliferate with the passing of time. Each cell is programmed for a certain number of cell divisions and at the end of that time proliferation halts. The cell enters a quiescent state after which it experiences CELL DEATH via the process of APOPTOSIS.
MSH

final stage of cellular differentiation, characterized by inability to grow, divide, or repair damaged cell components, leading to cell death.
CSP

Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan. [GOC:jh, PMID:12044934]
GO

A cell aging process stimulated in response to cellular stress, whereby normal cells lose the ability to divide through irreversible cell cycle arrest. [GOC:BHF]
GO

A cellular senescence process associated with the dismantling of a cell as a response to telomere shortening and/or cellular aging. [GOC:BHF]
GO

Progression of the cell from its inception to the end of its lifespan.
NCI

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buňky – komunikace

Any of several ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
MSH

ways in which living cells of an organism communicate with one another, whether by direct contact between cells or by means of chemical signals carried by neurotransmitter substances, hormones, and cyclic AMP.
CSP

Any process that mediates interactions between a cell and its surroundings. Encompasses interactions such as signaling or attachment between one cell and another cell, between a cell and an extracellular matrix, or between a cell and any other aspect of its environment. [GOC:mah]
GO

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buňky – kompartmentace

A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.
MSH

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buňky – počet

The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
MSH

A procedure to determine the number of cells in a sample. Also used to mean the result of such a procedure.
NCI

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buněčné kultury – kultivační techniky

Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
MSH

General term referring to the maintenance of cell strains or lines in the laboratory. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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buněčný cyklus

The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
MSH

changes that take place in a cell during the period between its formation as one of the products of cell division and its own subsequent division.
CSP

Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cell`s progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated.
NCI

The progression of biochemical and morphological phases and events that occur in a cell during successive cell replication or nuclear replication events. Canonically, the cell cycle comprises the replication and segregation of genetic material followed by the division of the cell, but in endocycles or syncytial cells nuclear replication or nuclear division may not be followed by cell division. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

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buňky – smrt

The termination of the cell`s ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
MSH

termination of the cell`s ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
CSP

A biological process that results in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell. [GOC:mah]
GO

The cellular process resulting in permanent cessation of all vital functions of a cell.
NCI

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buňky – degranulace

The process of losing secretory granules (SECRETORY VESICLES). This occurs, for example, in mast cells, basophils, neutrophils, eosinophils, and platelets when secretory products are released from the granules by EXOCYTOSIS.
MSH

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buňky – diferenciace

Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
MSH

environmentally sensitive, genetically controlled, normally irreversible process in multicellular organisms whereby immature precursor cells become functionally and morphologically distinct, leading to the formation of various organs, tissues, and cell types.
CSP

The process in which relatively unspecialized cells, e.g. embryonic or regenerative cells, acquire specialized structural and/or functional features that characterize the cells, tissues, or organs of the mature organism or some other relatively stable phase of the organism`s life history. Differentiation includes the processes involved in commitment of a cell to a specific fate and its subsequent development to the mature state. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function which takes place during the development of the embryo and leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
NCI

The process during which young, immature (unspecialized) cells take on individual characteristics and reach their mature (specialized) form and function.
NCI

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buňky – dělení

The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
MSH

The process resulting in the physical partitioning and separation of a cell into daughter cells. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

A cellular mechanism directly involved in the process of cell division.
NCI

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M fáze buněčného dělení

The period of the cell cycle when CELLS divide their nucleus and cytoplasm.
MSH

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buněčné extrakty

Preparations of cell constituents or subcellular materials, isolates, or substances.
MSH

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buňky – frakcionace

Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.
MSH

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buňky – fúze

Fusion of somatic cells in vitro or in vivo, which results in somatic cell hybridization.
MSH

A technique to form a single hybrid cell, by fusion of two or more dissimilar cells, either spontaneously or by induced fusion. The cells fuse and coalesce, but their nuclei may remain separated. The cell fusion technique can be used as a method of assigning genes to specific chromosomes.
NCI

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Cell Growth

The process in which a cell irreversibly increases in size over time by accretion and biosynthetic production of matter similar to that already present. [GOC:ai]
GO

The complex series of phenomena occurring after cell division and before cell death.
NCI

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buňky – hypoxie

A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
MSH

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buněčné linie

Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
MSH

permanently established cell culture that will proliferate indefinately provided that it has the appropriate medium and space.
CSP

Cells of a single type (human, animal, or plant) that have been adapted to grow continuously in the laboratory and are used in research.
NCI

A permanently established cell culture that will proliferate indefinitely given appropriate fresh medium and space. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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buněčné linie transformované

Eukaryotic cell line obtained in a quiescent or stationary phase which undergoes conversion to a state of unregulated growth in culture, resembling an in vitro tumor. It occurs spontaneously or through interaction with viruses, oncogenes, radiation, or drugs/chemicals.
MSH

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buněčná membrána

The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
MSH

lipid and protein containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells; in most types of microbial cells it is bordered externally by the cell wall.
CSP

The membrane surrounding a cell that separates the cell from its external environment. It consists of a phospholipid bilayer and associated proteins. [ISBN:0716731363]
GO

OBSOLETE. In Gram-negative bacteria the membrane that separates the cytoplasm from the murein sacculus. [GOC:ma]
GO

Cell component which has as its parts a maximal phospholipids bilayer and two or more types of protein embedded in the bilayer. Examples: plasma membrane of hepatocyte, sarcolemma, plasma membrane of erythrocyte.
FMA

The outer membrane of a cell.
NCI

Cell part that surrounds the cytoplasm.
UWDA

The semipermeable membrane that encloses the cytoplasm of a cell.
NCI

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buněčná membrána – permeabilita

A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
MSH

property of membranes to permit passage of solvents, solutes, light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.
CSP

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buňky – inhibice migrace

Phenomenon of cell-mediated immunity measured by in vitro inhibition of the migration or phagocytosis of antigen-stimulated LEUKOCYTES or MACROPHAGES. Specific CELL MIGRATION ASSAYS have been developed to estimate levels of migration inhibitory factors, immune reactivity against tumor-associated antigens, and immunosuppressive effects of infectious microorganisms.
MSH

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lokomoce buněk

ability of cells to move from one location to another.
CSP

Any process involved in the controlled self-propelled movement of a cell that results in translocation of the cell from one place to another. [GOC:dgh, GOC:dph, GOC:isa_complete, GOC:mlg]
GO

Cell Motility consists of active translocation of a whole cell, or cell body, from one site to another; distinct from cell motion that involves movement of cell processes (e.g., axons, microvilli, etc.). (NCI)
NCI

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buněčné jadérko

Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

rounded refractile body present in the nucleus of most eukaryotic cells which is the site of synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
CSP

A small, dense body one or more of which are present in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. It is rich in RNA and protein, is not bounded by a limiting membrane, and is not seen during mitosis. Its prime function is the transcription of the nucleolar DNA into 45S ribosomal-precursor RNA, the processing of this RNA into 5.8S, 18S, and 28S components of ribosomal RNA, and the association of these components with 5S RNA and proteins synthesized outside the nucleolus. This association results in the formation of ribonucleoprotein precursors; these pass into the cytoplasm and mature into the 40S and 60S subunits of the ribosome. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I.
NCI

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buněčné jádro

Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
MSH

defining organelle of the eukaryotic cell; a membrane limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli; the nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum.
CSP

A membrane-bounded organelle of eukaryotic cells in which chromosomes are housed and replicated. In most cells, the nucleus contains all of the cell`s chromosomes except the organellar chromosomes, and is the site of RNA synthesis and processing. In some species, or in specialized cell types, RNA metabolism or DNA replication may be absent. [GOC:go_curators]
GO

Organelle which has as its direct parts a nuclear membrane and nuclear matrix.
FMA

core of a cell that contains genetic materials
CHV

In biology, the structure in a cell that contains the chromosomes. The nucleus has a membrane around it, and is where RNA is made from the DNA in the chromosomes.
NCI

A body within the cell, surrounded by a membrane, within which lie the chromosomes, one or more nucleoli, combined with proteins, and exhibits mitosis.
NCI

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buňky – fyziologické jevy

Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
MSH

Characteristics and physiological processes of cells from cell division to cell death. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

Any process that takes place on the cellular level, though not necessarily restricted to a single cell.
NCI

An intracellular or extracellular function, activity, or process principally involving intracellular or extracellular components.
NCI

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buňky – separace

applies only to artificial, usually extracorporeal techniques; for natural, in vivo processes, use CELL MIGRATION.
CSP

Techniques and methods for separating cells (usually viable) based on a variety of criteria for separation, such as size or density, non-specific surface properties, or specific surface properties. Examples include cell affinity chromatography and centrifugation using density gradients.
NCI

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