Additional pages

globosidy

Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
MSH

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globuliny

do not confuse with GLOBIN.
CSP

proteins found in blood, milk, etc.
CHV

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globus pallidus

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus.
MSH

Nucleus of brain which is located medially to the putamen and laterally to the internal capsule.
FMA

The representation of the phylogenetically oldest part of the corpus striatum called the paleostriatum. It forms the smaller, more medial part of the lentiform nucleus. (MeSH)
NCI

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glomangiom

A blue-red, extremely painful vascular neoplasm involving a glomeriform arteriovenous anastomosis (glomus body), which may be found anywhere in the skin, most often in the distal portion of the fingers and toes, especially beneath the nail. It is composed of specialized pericytes (sometimes termed glomus cells), usually in single encapsulated nodular masses which may be several millimeters in diameter (From Stedman, 27th ed). CHEMODECTOMA, a tumor of NEURAL CREST origin, is also sometimes called a glomus tumor.
MSH

A rare benign or malignant mesenchymal neoplasm arising from cells that resemble the modified smooth muscle cells of the glomus body. The majority of glomus tumors occur in the distal extremities.
NCI

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glomerulární filtrace – hodnota

The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman`s capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
MSH

rate at which plasma is filtered by the glomerular filtration membrane into Bowman`s space; determined by the permeabiliy of the membrane, hydrostatic pressure in the glomerular capillaries and Bowman`s space, and the colloid osmotic pressure exerted by the proteins of the capillary plasma.
CSP

A kidney function test that measures the fluid volume that is filtered from the kidney glomeruli to the Bowman`s capsule per unit of time.
NCI

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glomerulární mesangium

The thin membranous structure supporting the adjoining glomerular capillaries. It is composed of GLOMERULAR MESANGIAL CELLS and their EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX.
MSH

thin membrane which helps to support the capillary bed in the renal glomeruli.
CSP

A thin membrane in the central part of the renal glomerulus between capillaries. It helps to support the capillary loops in the glomerulus. Mesangial cells are phagocytic and for the most part separated from capillary lumina by endothelial cells.
NCI

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glomerulonefritida

Inflammation of the renal glomeruli (KIDNEY GLOMERULUS) that can be classified by the type of glomerular injuries including antibody deposition, complement activation, cellular proliferation, and glomerulosclerosis. These structural and functional abnormalities usually lead to HEMATURIA; PROTEINURIA; HYPERTENSION; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
MSH

glomerular disease characterized by an inflammatory reaction, with leukocyte infiltration and cellular proliferation of the glomeruli, or that appears to be the result of immune glomerular injury.
CSP

A renal disorder characterized by damage in the glomeruli. It may be acute or chronic, focal or diffuse, and it may lead to renal failure. Causes include autoimmune disorders, infections, diabetes, and malignancies.
NCI

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glomerulonefritida IgA

A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.
MSH

most common cause of primary glomerular disease in Europe, Australia, and United States; lesions formed as a consequence of mesangial formations of immune deposits composed of IgA.
CSP

A chronic autoimmune glomerulonephritis characterized by the deposition of immunoglobulin A in the mesangium of the glomeruli. It is manifested with hematuria and mild proteinuria.
NCI

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membranoproliferativní glomerulonefritida

Chronic glomerulonephritis characterized histologically by proliferation of MESANGIAL CELLS, increase in the MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX, and a thickening of the glomerular capillary walls. This may appear as a primary disorder or secondary to other diseases including infections and autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Various subtypes are classified by their abnormal ultrastructures and immune deposits. Hypocomplementemia is a characteristic feature of all types of MPGN.
MSH

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glomerulonefritida membranózní

A type of glomerulonephritis that is characterized by the accumulation of immune deposits (COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX) on the outer aspect of the GLOMERULAR BASEMENT MEMBRANE. It progresses from subepithelial dense deposits, to basement membrane reaction and eventual thickening of the basement membrane.
MSH

characterized histologically by proteinaceous deposits on the glomerular capillary basement membrane or by thickening of the membrane; clinically similar to chronic glomerulonephritis, occasionally with transient nephrotic syndrome.
CSP

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glomeruloskleróza fokálně segmentální

A clinicopathological syndrome or diagnostic term for a type of glomerular injury that has multiple causes, primary or secondary. Clinical features include PROTEINURIA, reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE, and EDEMA. Kidney biopsy initially indicates focal segmental glomerular consolidation (hyalinosis) or scarring which can progress to globally sclerotic glomeruli leading to eventual KIDNEY FAILURE.
MSH

A renal disorder characterized by sclerotic lesions in the glomeruli. Causes include drugs, viruses, and malignancies (lymphomas), or it may be idiopathic. It presents with asymptomatic proteinuria or nephritic syndrome and it may lead to renal failure.
NCI

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glomus jugulare

A nonchromaffin paraganglion located in the wall of the jugular bulb. The most common tumors of the middle ear arise from this tissue. (Lockard, Desk Reference for Neuroscience, 1992, p114)
MSH

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glomus jugulare – nádor

A paraganglioma involving the glomus jugulare, a microscopic collection of chemoreceptor tissue in the adventitia of the bulb of the jugular vein. It may cause paralysis of the vocal cords, attacks of dizziness, blackouts, and nystagmus. It is not resectable but radiation therapy is effective. It regresses slowly, but permanent control is regularly achieved. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1603-4)
MSH

A benign or malignant extra-adrenal parasympathetic paraganglioma arising from paraganglia in the base of the skull and middle ear.
NCI

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glosalgie

Painful sensations in the tongue, including a sensation of burning.
MSH

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glosektomie

Partial or total surgical excision of the tongue. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

Surgery involving partial or complete excision of the tongue.
NCI

Surgical removal of all or part of the tongue.
NCI

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glositida

Inflammation of the tongue.
MSH

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glositida benigní migrační

An idiopathic disorder characterized by the loss of filiform papillae leaving reddened areas of circinate macules bound by a white band. The lesions heal, then others erupt.
MSH

A benign condition characterized by the development of irregular patches in the surface of the tongue resulting in a map-like appearance. The patches migrate from day to day and usually resolve without treatment.
NCI

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nervus glossopharyngeus

The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
MSH

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glottis

The vocal apparatus of the larynx, situated in the middle section of the larynx. Glottis consists of the VOCAL FOLDS and an opening (rima glottidis) between the folds.
MSH

Subdivision of the larynx which consists of the right and left vocal cords and the rima glottidis. Examples: There is only one glottis.
UWDA

The middle part of the larynx; the area where the vocal cords are located.
NCI

Subdivision of the larynx which consists of the right and left vocal cords and the rima glottidis. Examples: There is only one glottis.
FMA

The space in which the vocal cords are located. (NCI)
NCI

The space in which the vocal cords are located.
NCI

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rukavice chirurgické

Gloves, usually rubber, worn by surgeons, examining physicians, dentists, and other health personnel for the mutual protection of personnel and patient.
MSH

A surgeon`s glove is a device made of natural or synthetic rubber intended to be worn by operating room personnel to protect a surgical wound from contamination. The lubricating or dusting powder used in the glove is excluded.
SPN

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glukagon

A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)
MSH

pancreatic hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets; a 29-amino acid straight chain polypeptide that plays an important role in regulation of blood glucose concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes.
CSP

A hormone produced by the pancreas that increases the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
NCI

A pancreatic hormone consisting of 29 amino acids that causes increases in blood sugar levels by stimulating hepatic glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis.
NCI

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glukagonom

An almost always malignant GLUCAGON-secreting tumor derived from the PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS. It is characterized by a distinctive migratory ERYTHEMA; WEIGHT LOSS; STOMATITIS; GLOSSITIS; DIABETES MELLITUS; hypoaminoacidemia; and normochromic normocytic ANEMIA.
MSH

A usually malignant, glucagon-producing neuroendocrine neoplasm arising from the pancreatic alpha cells. It may or may not be associated with inappropriate secretion of glucagon and an associated clinical syndrome.
NCI

A rare pancreatic tumor that produces a hormone called glucagon. Glucagonomas can produce symptoms similar to diabetes.
NCI

A usually malignant, glucagon-producing neoplasm arising from the pancreatic alpha cells. It may be associated with necrolytic erythema migrans, diarrhea, diabetes, glossitis, weight loss, malabsorption, and anemia. Almost 25% of patients experience thromboembolic complications, and 50% have liver metastases at the time of diagnosis.
NCI

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glukany

Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
MSH

group of polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units; they can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
CSP

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kyselina glukarová

A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
MSH

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glukokortikoidy

A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
MSH

group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism, inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity; they also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
CSP

A compound that belongs to the family of compounds called corticosteroids (steroids). Glucocorticoids affect metabolism and have anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive effects. They may be naturally produced (hormones) or synthetic (drugs).
NCI

A group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism (gluconeogenesis, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of blood sugar), inhibit corticotropin secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system. (MSH2002_06_01)
NCI

Synthetically derived forms of the naturally occurring Glucocorticoids.
NCI

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glukokinasa

A group of enzymes that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and D-glucose to ADP and D-glucose 6-phosphate. They are found in invertebrates and microorganisms, and are highly specific for glucose. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.2.
MSH

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glukonáty

hexonic acid or its salts derived from glucose by oxidation of the aldehyde group at C-1 to a carboxyl group.
CSP

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glukoneogeneze

Biosynthesis of GLUCOSE from nonhexose or non-carbohydrate precursors, such as LACTATE; PYRUVATE; ALANINE; and GLYCEROL.
MSH

biosynthesis of glucose from 3-carbon precursors, including aminoacids (this is the basis of protein breakdown during starvation).
CSP

The process of making glucose (sugar) from its own breakdown products or from the breakdown products of lipids (fats) or proteins. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in cells of the liver or kidney.
NCI

The formation of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors, such as pyruvate, amino acids and glycerol. [MetaCyc:GLUCONEO-PWY]
GO

The biosynthesis of new glucose as opposed to that generated by the metabolism of glycogen. Gluconeogenesis occurs mainly in the liver or kidneys, and involves the biosynthesis of glucose from 3-carbon or 4-carbon non-carbohydrate precursors such as amino acids or fats.
NCI

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glukosamin

amino sugar derivative of glucose, substituted at the 2 position, occurring in glycosaminoglycans and a variety of complex polysaccharides such as blood group substances.
CSP

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Glucosamine Sulfate

An amino sugar (2-amino, 2-deoxyglucose) in cell membranes, Glucosamine Sulfate is believed to play a role in cartilage formation and repair. Long-term glucosamine sulfate treatment retards progression of knee osteoarthritis; the mechanism appears to involve glucosamine`s role as an essential substrate for glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronic acid, needed for formation of the joint proteoglycan structural matrix. (NCI04)
NCI

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