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cholangiopankreatografie endoskopická retrográdní

Fiberoptic endoscopy designed for duodenal observation and cannulation of VATER`S AMPULLA, in order to visualize the pancreatic and biliary duct system by retrograde injection of contrast media. Endoscopic (Vater) papillotomy (SPHINCTEROTOMY, ENDOSCOPIC) may be performed during this procedure.
MSH

A procedure that uses an endoscope to examine and x-ray the pancreatic duct, hepatic duct, common bile duct, duodenal papilla, and gallbladder. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. The endoscope is passed through the mouth and down into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A smaller tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope into the bile and pancreatic ducts. A dye is injected through the catheter into the ducts, and an x-ray is taken.
NCI

a kind of endoscopy
CHV

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cholangitida

Inflammation of the biliary ductal system (BILE DUCTS); intrahepatic, extrahepatic, or both.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the biliary tract.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammatory process affecting the biliary tract.
NCI

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primární biliární cirhóza

a form of biliary cirrhosis in which small intrahepatic ducts are destroyed while the major intra and extra hepatic ducts remain patent; most patients are middle aged females and have circulating antimitochondrial antibodies.
CSP

An autoimmune inflammatory disorder characterized by destruction of the small intrahepatic bile ducts. It affects predominantly females and it may lead to cirrhosis and liver failure. Patients have antimitochondrial and antinuclear antibodies in the peripheral blood.
NCI

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sklerozující cholangitida

Chronic inflammatory disease of the BILIARY TRACT. It is characterized by fibrosis and hardening of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary ductal systems leading to bile duct strictures, CHOLESTASIS, and eventual BILIARY CIRRHOSIS.
MSH

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cholekalciferol

Derivative of 7-dehydroxycholesterol formed by ULTRAVIOLET RAYS breaking of the C9-C10 bond. It differs from ERGOCALCIFEROL in having a single bond between C22 and C23 and lacking a methyl group at C24.
MSH

produced in human and other animal tissue by photoactivation (normally sunlight on skin) of 7-dehydrocholesterol.
CSP

A steroid hormone produced in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light or obtained from dietary sources. The active form of cholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) plays an important role in maintaining blood calcium and phosphorus levels and mineralization of bone. The activated form of cholecalciferol binds to vitamin D receptors and modulates gene expression. This leads to an increase in serum calcium concentrations by increasing intestinal absorption of phosphorus and calcium, promoting distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increasing osteoclastic resorption.
NCI

Vitamin D synthesized from ergosterol in yeast and plants.
NCI

A nutrient that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Cholecalciferol helps the body use calcium and phosphorus to make strong bones and teeth. It is fat-soluble (can dissolve in fats and oils) and is found in fatty fish, egg yolks, and dairy products. Skin exposed to sunshine can also make cholecalciferol. Not enough cholecalciferol can cause a bone disease called rickets. It is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of cancer.
NCI

A steroid hormone produced in the skin when exposed to ultraviolet light or obtained from dietary sources. The active form of cholecalciferol, 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) plays an important role in maintaining blood calcium and phosphorus levels and mineralization of bone. The activated form of cholecalciferol binds to vitamin D receptors and modulates gene expression. This leads to an increase in serum calcium concentrations by increasing intestinal absorption of phosphorus and calcium, promoting distal renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increasing osteoclastic resorption. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39734&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39734&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C48194″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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cholecystektomie

Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
NCI

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cholecystitida

inflammation of the gallbladder; generally caused by impairment of bile flow, gallstones in the biliary tract, infections, or other diseases.
CSP

A disorder characterized by inflammation involving the gallbladder. It may be associated with the presence of gallstones.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammation involving the gallbladder wall. It may be associated with the presence of gallstones.
NCI

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cholecystografie

Radiography of the gallbladder after ingestion of a contrast medium.
MSH

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cholecystokinin

A peptide, of about 33 amino acids, secreted by the upper INTESTINAL MUCOSA and also found in the central nervous system. It causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions. Cholecystokinin may be the mediator of satiety.
MSH

peptide secreted by the upper intestinal mucosa and also found in the central nervous system; causes gallbladder contraction, release of pancreatic exocrine (or digestive) enzymes, and affects other gastrointestinal functions; cholecystokinin may be a mediator of satiety.
CSP

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cholecystostomie

Establishment of an opening into the gallbladder either for drainage or surgical communication with another part of the digestive tract, usually the duodenum or jejunum.
MSH

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choledochální cysta

A congenital anatomic malformation of a bile duct, including cystic dilatation of the extrahepatic bile duct or the large intrahepatic bile duct. Classification is based on the site and type of dilatation. Type I is most common.
MSH

Congenital cystic dilatation of the hepatic duct or bile duct.
NCI

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choledochostomie

Surgical formation of an opening (stoma) into the COMMON BILE DUCT for drainage or for direct communication with a site in the small intestine, primarily the DUODENUM or JEJUNUM.
MSH

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cholelitiáza

Presence or formation of GALLSTONES in the BILIARY TRACT, usually in the gallbladder (CHOLECYSTOLITHIASIS) or the common bile duct (CHOLEDOCHOLITHIASIS).
MSH

presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder.
CSP

Your gallbladder is a pear-shaped organ under your liver. It stores bile, a fluid made by your liver to digest fat. As your stomach and intestines digest food, your gallbladder releases bile through a tube called the common bile duct. The duct connects your gallbladder and liver to your small intestine.

Your gallbladder is most likely to give you trouble if something blocks the flow of bile through the bile ducts. That is usually a gallstone. Gallstones form when substances in bile harden. Gallstone attacks usually happen after you eat. Signs of a gallstone attack may include nausea, vomiting, or pain in the abdomen, back, or just under the right arm.

Gallstones are most common among older adults, women, overweight people, Native Americans and Mexican Americans. The most common treatment is removal of the gallbladder. Fortunately, the gallbladder is an organ that you can live without. Bile has other ways to reach your small intestine.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

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choleny

Unsaturated derivatives of cholane with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched five-carbon chain at C-17. They must have at least one double bond in the ring system.
MSH

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cholera

An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
MSH

acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and southeast Asia whose causative agent is Vibrio cholerae; can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
CSP

Cholera is a bacterial infection that causes diarrhea. The cholera bacterium is usually found in water or food contaminated by feces (poop). Cholera is rare in the US. You may get it if you travel to parts of the world with inadequate water treatment and poor sanitation, and lack of sewage treatment. Outbreaks can also happen after disasters. The disease is not likely to spread directly from one person to another.

Often the infection is mild or without symptoms, but sometimes it can be severe. Severe symptoms include profuse watery diarrhea, vomiting, and leg cramps. In severe cases, rapid loss of body fluids leads to dehydration and shock. Without treatment, death can occur within hours.

Doctors diagnose cholera with a stool sample or rectal swab. Treatment includes replacing fluid and salts and sometimes antibiotics.

Anyone who thinks they may have cholera should seek medical attention immediately. Dehydration can be rapid so fluid replacement is essential.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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cholera – toxin

An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
MSH

enterotoxin from Vibrio cholerae that consists of two major protomers, the heavy (h) or a subunit and the b protomer which consists of 5 light (l) or b subunits.
CSP

Secreted by Vibrio cholerae, Cholera Toxin is a natural bacterial enterotoxin consisting of major components heavy A- and light B peptides (choleragenoid) that initiates a signaling cascade in intestinal epithelial cells causing a dysfunction of chloride channels, loss of water, and diarrhea. B peptide anchors the protein to epithelia; A peptide enters the cytoplasm and activates adenylate cyclase. Due to its cytotoxicity, cholera toxin is being studied for tumor cell targeting and cancer chemotherapy. (NCI04)
NCI

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Choleragenoid

The nontoxic, pentameric B protomer of cholera toxin. The cell membrane binding component of cholera toxin.
MSH

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Cholera Toxin Protomer A

The catalytic subunit of cholera toxin. It is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE.
MSH

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cholerové vakcíny

vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with Vibrio cholerae.
CSP

Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
MSH

cholera vaccine


HL7V3.0

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Choleretics

gastrointestinal agent that stimulates the flow of bile into the duodenum or stimulates the production of bile by the liver.
CSP

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cholestadieny

Cholene derivatives with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. They must have two double bonds in the ring system.
MSH

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cholestadienoly

Cholestadiene derivatives containing a hydroxy group anywhere in the molecule.
MSH

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cholestany

Derivatives of the saturated steroid cholestane with methyl groups at C-18 and C-19 and an iso-octyl side chain at C-17.
MSH

C27 hydrocarbon parent structure for the synthesis of mammalian steroids.
CSP

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cholestanoly

Cholestanes substituted in any position with one or more hydroxy groups. They are found in feces and bile. In contrast to bile acids and salts, they are not reabsorbed.
MSH

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cholestanony

CHOLESTANES substituted with any number of keto groups.
MSH

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cholestáza

Impairment of bile flow due to obstruction in small bile ducts (INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS) or obstruction in large bile ducts (EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS).
MSH

intrahepatic impairment of bile flow; usually due to liver cell damage, but may be due to obstruction of intrahepatic bile ducts.
CSP

stoppage or suppression of bile by intrahepatic or extrahepatic causes.
CSP

Impairment of the bile flow caused by obstruction within the liver, or outside the liver in the bile duct system.
NCI

Any condition in which the release of bile from the liver is blocked. The blockage can occur in the liver (intrahepatic cholestasis) or in the bile ducts (extrahepatic cholestasis).
NCI

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cholestáza intrahepatická

Impairment of bile flow due to injury to the HEPATOCYTES; BILE CANALICULI; or the intrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC).
MSH

Impairment of the bile flow caused by obstruction within the liver.
NCI

Price: $1.00

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cholesteatom

A non-neoplastic mass of keratin-producing squamous EPITHELIUM, frequently occurring in the MENINGES; bones of the skull, and most commonly in the MIDDLE EAR and MASTOID region. Cholesteatoma can be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatoma is not a tumor nor is it associated with high CHOLESTEROL.
MSH

non-neoplastic keratinizing mass with stratified squamous epithelium, frequently occurring in the meninges, central nervous system, bones of the skull, and most commonly in the middle ear and mastoid region.
CSP

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cholesteny

Steroids with methyl groups at C-10 and C-13 and a branched 8-carbon chain at C-17. Members include compounds with any degree of unsaturation; however, CHOLESTADIENES is available for derivatives containing two double bonds.
MSH

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cholestenony

CHOLESTENES with one or more double bonds and substituted by any number of keto groups.
MSH

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