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cholesterol

The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
MSH

C27H46O, the major fatty steroid alcohol of vertebrate animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
CSP

Lipid composed of 27 carbon atoms which form three fused cycloheane (6-carbon) rings, a cyclopentane (5-carbon ring) and a side chain of 8 carbon atoms. (Ensminger et al).
NCI

Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in all parts of the body. Your body needs some cholesterol to work properly. But if you have too much in your blood, it can stick to the walls of your arteries. This is called plaque. Plaque can narrow your arteries or even block them.

High levels of cholesterol in the blood can increase your risk of heart disease. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high blood cholesterol, but it can be detected with a blood test. You are likely to have high cholesterol if members of your family have it, if you are overweight or if you eat a lot of fatty foods.

You can lower your cholesterol by exercising more and eating more fruits and vegetables. You also may need to take medicine to lower your cholesterol.

NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute


MEDLINEPLUS

A waxy, fat-like substance made in the liver, and found in the blood and in all cells of the body. Cholesterol is important for good health and is needed for making cell walls, tissues, hormones, vitamin D, and bile acid. Cholesterol also comes from eating foods taken from animals such as egg yolks, meat, and whole-milk dairy products. Too much cholesterol in the blood may build up in blood vessel walls, block blood flow to tissues and organs, and increase the risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
NCI

An animal sterol found in the body tissues (and blood plasma) of vertebrates. It can be found in large concentrations within the liver, spinal cord, and brain. Cholesterol is an important component of the membranes of cells, providing stability. It is the major precursor for the synthesis of vitamin D, of the various steroid hormones, including cortisol, cortisone, and aldosterone in the adrenal glands, and of the sex hormones progesterone, estrogen, and testosterone. Cholesterol also has an important role for the brain synapses as well as in the immune system. In conditions featuring elevated low density lipoproteins (LDL), cholesterol often forms plaque deposits in the walls of arteries, a condition known as atherosclerosis, which is a major contributor to coronary heart disease and other forms of cardiovascular disease.
NCI

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sterol-O-acyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cholesterol esters by the direct transfer of the fatty acid group from a fatty acyl CoA derivative. This enzyme has been found in the adrenal gland, gonads, liver, intestinal mucosa, and aorta of many mammalian species. EC 2.3.1.26.
MSH

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enzym štěpící postranní řetězce cholesterolu

A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
MSH

Encoded by human CYP11A1 Gene (Cytochrome P450 Family), 521-aa 60-kDa (precursor) Cytochrome P450C11A1 is a mitochondrial inner membrane P450 heme-thiolate monooxygenase that catalyzes a side-chain cleavage reaction conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, the first (rate-limiting) step in the synthesis of steroid hormones. CYP11A1 defects cause congenital adrenal insufficiency (CAI) and congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH). P450 enzymes catalyze reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (NCI)
NCI

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estery cholesterolu – nemoc z ukládání

An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the gene for acid lipase (STEROL ESTERASE). It is characterized by the accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly CHOLESTEROL ESTERS in leukocytes, fibroblasts, and hepatocytes.
MSH

rare benign adult form of inherited lysosomal lipid storage disease that is due to deficiency of acid lipase; results in an accumulation of neutral lipids, particularly cholesterol esters, within cells (particularly leukocytes, fibroblasts, and liver cells); it is an allelic variant of Wolman disease.
CSP

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sterolesterasa

acts on esters of sterols and long chain fatty acids may bring about esterification of sterols activated by bile salts.
CSP

An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and some other sterol esters, to liberate cholesterol plus a fatty acid anion.
MSH

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estery cholesterolu

Fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in the plasma. The accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
MSH

fatty acid esters of cholesterol which constitute about two-thirds of the cholesterol in human plasma; accumulation of cholesterol esters in the arterial intima is a characteristic feature of atherosclerosis.
CSP

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cholesteroloxidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of cholesterol in the presence of molecular oxygen to 4-cholesten-3-one and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme is not specific for cholesterol, but will also oxidize other 3-hydroxysteroids. EC 1.1.3.6.
MSH

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cholesterol dietní

Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.
MSH

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cholesterol-7-alfa-hydroxylasa

A membrane-bound cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 7-alpha-hydroxylation of CHOLESTEROL in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP7, converts cholesterol to 7-alpha-hydroxycholesterol which is the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of BILE ACIDS.
MSH

Encoded by human CYP7A1 Gene (Cytochrome P450 Family), 504-aa 58-kDa Cytochrome P450 7A1 is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound P450 heme-thiolate monooxygenase in the liver that catalyzes the first (rate-limiting) reaction in the cholesterol catabolic pathway: cholesterol conversion to bile acids, the major site of regulation of bile acid synthesis and the primary mechanism for removal of cholesterol from the body. P450 enzymes catalyze reactions involved in drug metabolism and synthesis of cholesterol, steroids and other lipids. (NCI)
NCI

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cholestyraminová pryskyřice

strongly basic anion exchange resin used to extract bile salts and cholesterol, to treat diarrhea and biliary obstruction, and as an antipruritic.
CSP

A strongly basic anion exchange resin whose main constituent is polystyrene trimethylbenzylammonium Cl(-) anion.
MSH

An anion exchange resin. Cholestyramine resin adsorbs and combines with bile acids in the intestine to form an insoluble complex, which is then excreted in the feces. As a result, the absorption of bile acids from the enterohepatic circulation is partially prevented, resulting in an increased oxidation of cholesterol to bile acids, a decrease in low density lipoprotein in the plasma, and a decrease in serum cholesterol levels. Cholestyramine also increases the elimination of methotrexate and leflunomide, thereby potentially decreasing related toxicities. (NCI04)
NCI

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kyseliny cholové

The 3 alpha,7 alpha,12 alpha-trihydroxy-5 beta-cholanic acid family of bile acids in man, usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. They act as detergents to solubilize fats for intestinal absorption, are reabsorbed by the small intestine, and are used as cholagogues and choleretics.
MSH

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cholin

A basic constituent of lecithin that is found in many plants and animal organs. It is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism.
MSH

essential nutrient that is part of the B-complex family of vitamins and is a constituent of lecithin; it is important as a precursor of acetylcholine, as a methyl donor in various metabolic processes, and in lipid metabolism; it also aids in hormone production and is needed for the proper transmission of nerve impulses, liver function and gallbladder regulation.
CSP

Water-soluble vitamin that is a precursor for acetylcholine, phospholipids, and the methyl donor betaine. (DRI)
NCI

a organic chemical substance found in plants and animal organs
CHV

A nutrient in the vitamin B complex that the body needs in small amounts to function and stay healthy. Choline helps cells make membranes, make a neurotransmitter (a chemical that helps nerve cells communicate with other cells), and remove fat from the liver. It is found in whole milk, beef liver, eggs, soy foods, and peanuts. Choline is water-soluble (can dissolve in water) and must be taken in every day. Not enough choline can cause diseases of the heart and blood vessels and damage to the liver. A form of choline is being studied in the treatment of some types of cancer and to reduce pain and fever. Choline is also being studied together with vitamin B12 in the prevention and treatment of cancer.
NCI

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cholin-O-acetyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of acetylcholine from acetyl-CoA and choline. EC 2.3.1.6.
MSH

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cholin – nedostatek

A condition produced by a deficiency of CHOLINE in animals. Choline is known as a lipotropic agent because it has been shown to promote the transport of excess fat from the liver under certain conditions in laboratory animals. Combined deficiency of choline (included in the B vitamin complex) and all other methyl group donors causes liver cirrhosis in some animals. Unlike compounds normally considered as vitamins, choline does not serve as a cofactor in enzymatic reactions. (From Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)
MSH

state in which choline is absent or in diminished amount relative to the normal requirement of an organism or a biologic system.
CSP

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cholinkinasa

An enzyme that is active in the first step of choline phosphoglyceride (lecithin) biosynthesis by catalyzing the phosphorylation of choline to phosphorylcholine in the presence of ATP. Ethanolamine and its methyl and ethyl derivatives can also act as acceptors. EC 2.7.1.32.
MSH

Choline Kinase, encoded by the human CHK gene, produces phosphocholine from choline. The major pathway for the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine occurs via the CDP-choline pathway. Choline kinase is the initial enzyme in the sequence and may play a regulatory role. Choline kinase also catalyzes the phosphorylation of ethanolamine. (From LocusLink and NCI)
NCI

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cholinfosfotransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of phosphatidylcholines from CDPcholine and 1,2-diacylglycerols. EC 2.7.8.2.
MSH

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cholinergní vlákna

Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
MSH

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cholinesterasa – inhibitory

Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system.
MSH

any substance or agent which suppresses, prevents or opposes the action of cholinesterase resulting in the potentiation of the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses; cholinesterase inhibition is associated with a variety of acute symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, stomach cramps, and rapid heart rate.
CSP

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cholinesterasové reaktivátory

Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates.
MSH

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cholinesterasy

enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the cleavage of the acyl group from various esters of choline, including acetylcholine, and some related compounds the enzyme occurs primarily in the serum, liver, and pancreas determination of enzyme activity is used to test liver function, succinylcholine sensitivity, and whether organophosphate insecticide poisoning has occurred.
CSP

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chondro-4-sulfatasa

An enzyme from the sulfuric ester hydrolase class that breaks down one of the products of the chondroitin lyase II reaction. EC 3.1.6.9.
MSH

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chondroblastom

A usually benign tumor composed of cells which arise from chondroblasts or their precursors and which tend to differentiate into cartilage cells. It occurs primarily in the epiphyses of adolescents. It is relatively rare and represents less than 2% of all primary bone tumors. The peak incidence is in the second decade of life; it is about twice as common in males as in females. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, p1846)
MSH

A benign, lytic neoplasm usually arising from the cartilage in epiphysis and metaphysis of bone. It is a well circumscribed tumor characterized by the presence of chondroblasts, osteoclast-like giant cells, myxoid stroma formation, calcification, and mitotic activity. In aggressive cases, there is rearrangement of the 8q21 chromosome band. The tumor occurs most frequently in children and young adults.
NCI

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chondrodysplasia punctata

A heterogeneous group of bone dysplasias, the common character of which is stippling of the epiphyses in infancy. The group includes a severe autosomal recessive form (CHONDRODYSPLASIA PUNCTATA, RHIZOMELIC), an autosomal dominant form (Conradi-Hunermann syndrome), and a milder X-linked form. Metabolic defects associated with impaired peroxisomes are present only in the rhizomelic form.
MSH

A rare congenital developmental disorder characterized by the presence of stippled foci of calcification in the hyaline cartilage, joint contractions, mental retardation and ichthyosis.
NCI

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Chondrodystrofie

morbid condition characterized by abnormal development of cartilage.
CSP

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chondroitin

A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

family of acetylgalactosamine mucopolysaccharides.
CSP

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chondroitin-ABC-lyasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
MSH

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chondroitinlyasy

Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.
MSH

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chondroitinsulfáty

Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.
MSH

A form contains glucuronic acid, B and C forms contain L-iduronic acid; all are sulfated on their galactosamine residues, B and C differing by the position of sulfation.
CSP

The major glycosaminoglycan (a type of sugar molecule) in cartilage.
NCI

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chondroitinasy a chondroitinlyasy

Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.
MSH

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chondroitinsulfatasy

A group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of various sulfate bonds of chondroitin sulfate. EC 3.1.6.-.
MSH

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