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chondromalacia patellae

A degeneration of the ARTICULAR CARTILAGE of the PATELLA, caused by a decrease in sulfated MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDES in the ground substance. When accompanied by pain, it is sometimes considered part of or confused with PATELLOFEMORAL PAIN SYNDROME.
MSH

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chondromatóza synoviální

Rare, benign, chronic, progressive metaplasia in which cartilage is formed in the synovial membranes of joints, tendon sheaths, or bursae. Some of the metaplastic foci can become detached producing loose bodies. When the loose bodies undergo secondary calcification, the condition is called synovial osteochondromatosis.
MSH

An uncommon, benign cartilaginous neoplasm usually occurring in adults. The nodular tumor arises from the synovial membranes of joints. It is characterized by the presence of chondrocytes, nuclear pleomorphism, and hyaline cartilage differentiation. Clinical presentation may include joint pain, swelling, and limited range of motion.
NCI

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chondrosarkom

A slowly growing malignant neoplasm derived from cartilage cells, occurring most frequently in pelvic bones or near the ends of long bones, in middle-aged and old people. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion or in patients with ENCHONDROMATOSIS. (Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

A type of cancer that forms in bone cartilage. It usually starts in the pelvis (between the hip bones), the shoulder, the ribs, or at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs. A rare type of chondrosarcoma called extraskeletal chondrosarcoma does not form in bone cartilage. Instead, it forms in the soft tissues of the upper part of the arms and legs. Chondrosarcoma can occur at any age but is more common in people older than 40 years. It is a type of bone cancer.
NCI

A malignant tumor with pure hyaline cartilage differentiation. Myxoid changes, calcification and ossification may be present.
NCI

A malignant mesenchymal tumor arising from cartilage-forming tissues involving the bones. It affects middle-aged to elderly adults, and the pelvic bones, ribs, shoulder girdle, and long bones are the most common sites of involvement. Most chondrosarcomas arise de novo, but some may develop in a preexisting benign cartilaginous lesion.
NCI

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chorda tympani

A branch of the facial (7th cranial) nerve which passes through the middle ear and continues through the petrotympanic fissure. The chorda tympani nerve carries taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue and conveys parasympathetic efferents to the salivary glands.
MSH

branch which leaves the facial (intermediate) nerve in the facial canal and enters the tympanic cavity; composed of visceral sensory fibers for taste from the anterior of the tongue and preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from the superior salivatory nucleus.
CSP

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chordae tendineae

The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.
MSH

Organ component layer which is attached to the leaf of cardiac valve and is continuous with the endocardium of the papillary muscle.
FMA

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nižší strunatci

A portion of the animal phylum Chordata comprised of the subphyla Cephalochordata, UROCHORDATA, and HYPEROTRETI, but not including the Vertebrata (VERTEBRATES). It includes nonvertebrate animals having a NOTOCHORD during some developmental stage.
MSH

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chordom

A malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord. It is also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

malignant tumor arising from the embryonic remains of the notochord; also called chordocarcinoma, chordoepithelioma, and notochordoma.
CSP

A type of bone cancer that usually starts in the lower spinal column or at the base of the skull.
NCI

A malignant bone tumor arising from the remnants of the fetal notochord. Although it can occur at all ages, it is more frequently seen in middle-aged adults. Most frequent sites of involvement are: sacrococcygeal area, spheno-occipital area, and the cervico-thoraco-lumbar spine. Microscopically, chordomas are composed of cells that form cords and lobules, separated by mucoid intercellular tissue. Some of the cells are large (physaliphorous) and have vacuolated cytoplasm and prominent vesicular nuclei. Other tumor cells are small with small nuclei without visible nucleoli. Chordomas tend to recur and may metastasize. The most common sites of metastasis are skin and bone.
NCI

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chorea

Involuntary, forcible, rapid, jerky movements that may be subtle or become confluent, markedly altering normal patterns of movement. Hypotonia and pendular reflexes are often associated. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of chorea as a primary manifestation of disease are referred to as CHOREATIC DISORDERS. Chorea is also a frequent manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
MSH

ceaseless occurrence of rapid, highly complex jerky movements that appear to be well coordinated but are performed involuntarily.
CSP

A neurological condition affecting the involuntary movements. It is characterized by brief, non-repetitive irregular muscle contractions. It is seen in patients with Huntington`s disease.
NCI

a group of diseases marked by involuntary and jerky movements
CHV

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chorioadenom

A uterine tumor derived from persistent gestational TROPHOBLASTS, most likely after a molar pregnancy (HYDATIDIFORM MOLE). Invasive hyadatiform mole develops in about 15% of patients after evacuation of a complete mole and less frequently after other types of gestation. It may perforate the MYOMETRIUM and erode uterine vessels causing hemorrhage.
MSH

A type of cancer that grows into the muscular wall of the uterus. It is formed after conception (fertilization of an egg by a sperm). It may spread to other parts of the body, such as the vagina, vulva, and lung.
NCI

This term is used when a complete mole or very rarely a partial mole invades the myometrium. Microscopically, villi of hydatidiform mole are present within the myometrium or the myometrial vessels. Patients have persistent or rising hCG levels.
NCI

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chorioamnionitida

INFLAMMATION of the placental membranes (CHORION; AMNION) and connected tissues such as fetal BLOOD VESSELS and UMBILICAL CORD. It is often associated with intrauterine ascending infections during PREGNANCY.
MSH

Inflammation of the fetal sac membranes.
NCI

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choriokarcinom

A malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors. Unlike the HYDATIDIFORM MOLE, choriocarcinoma contains no CHORIONIC VILLI but rather sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts (TROPHOBLASTS). It is characterized by the large amounts of CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN produced. Tissue origins can be determined by DNA analyses: placental (fetal) origin or non-placental origin (CHORIOCARCINOMA, NON-GESTATIONAL).
MSH

malignant metastatic form of trophoblastic tumors, contains sheets of undifferentiated cytotrophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts; characterized by the large amounts of chorionic gonadotropin produced; tissue origins can be placental (fetal) or non-placental.
CSP

A malignant, fast-growing tumor that develops from trophoblastic cells (cells that help an embryo attach to the uterus and help form the placenta). Almost all choriocarcinomas form in the uterus after fertilization of an egg by a sperm, but a small number form in a testis or an ovary. Choriocarcinomas spread through the blood to other organs, especially the lungs. They are a type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
NCI

An aggressive malignant tumor arising from trophoblastic cells. The vast majority of cases arise in the uterus and represent gestational choriocarcinomas that derive from placental trophoblastic cells. Approximately half of the cases develop from a complete hydatidiform mole. A minority of cases arise in the testis or the ovaries. There is often marked elevation of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in the blood. Choriocarcinomas disseminate rapidly through the hematogenous route; the lungs are most frequently affected.
NCI

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chorion

The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
MSH

The outermost layer of the membranous sac enclosing the embryo in higher vertebrates.
NCI

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choriové klky

The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
MSH

Tiny vascular tissue projections from the membranous sac that surrounds the embryo.
NCI

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choriové klky – odběr

A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
MSH

technique to sample fetal tissue for genetic analysis; may be performed after 6 weeks gestation, which is earlier than amniocentesis, facilitating elective abortion.
CSP

The extraction of placenta tissue containing the chorionic villi from the maternal uterus in early pregnancy to screen for fetal genetic defects.
NCI

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chorioretinitida

Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
MSH

inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque; inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
CSP

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chorismátmutasa

An isomerase that catalyzes the conversion of chorismic acid to prephenic acid. EC 5.4.99.5.
MSH

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kyselina chorismová

A cyclohexadiene carboxylic acid derived from SHIKIMIC ACID and a precursor for the biosynthesis of UBIQUINONE and the AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS.
MSH

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choristom

A mass of histologically normal tissue present in an abnormal location.
MSH

Proliferation of normal tissue in an anatomic site in which this particular type of tissue is not normally present.
NCI

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choroidea

The thin, highly vascular membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the RETINA and SCLERA.
MSH

A thin layer of tissue that is part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye, between the sclera (white outer layer of the eye) and the retina (the inner layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye). The choriod is filled with blood vessels that bring oxygen and nutrients to the eye.
NCI

A blood vessel-containing membrane of the eye that lies between the retina and the sclera.
NCI

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choroidea – nemoci

Disorders of the choroid including hereditary choroidal diseases, neoplasms, and other abnormalities of the vascular layer of the uvea.
MSH

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choroidea – hemoragie

Hemorrhage from the vessels of the choroid.
MSH

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choroidea – nádory

Tumors of the choroid; most common intraocular tumors are malignant melanomas of the choroid. These usually occur after puberty and increase in incidence with advancing age. Most malignant melanomas of the uveal tract develop from benign melanomas (nevi).
MSH

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plexus chorioideus

A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
MSH

secretory epithelium and associated blood vessels of the lateral, third, and fourth ventricles, which regulates production and composition of cerebrospinal fluid.
CSP

Blood vessels forming villous structures in the third, fourth, and lateral ventricles of the brain.
NCI

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choroiderémie

An X chromosome-linked abnormality characterized by atrophy of the choroid and degeneration of the retinal pigment epithelium causing night blindness.
MSH

A rare, X-linked inherited disorder characterized by choroid atrophy and retinal degeneration. It leads to progressive loss of vision.
NCI

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choroiditida

Inflammation of the choroid.
MSH

inflammation of the choroid, the membrane covering most of the posterior of the eye between the retina and sclera.
CSP

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křesťanská věda

A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.
MSH

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křesťanství

The religion stemming from the life, teachings, and death of Jesus Christ: the religion that believes in God as the Father Almighty who works redemptively through the Holy Spirit for men`s salvation and that affirms Jesus Christ as Lord and Savior who proclaimed to man the gospel of salvation. (From Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

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hemofilie B

A deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder. (Also known as Christmas Disease, after the first patient studied in detail, not the holy day.) Historical and clinical features resemble those in classic hemophilia (HEMOPHILIA A), but patients present with fewer symptoms. Severity of bleeding is usually similar in members of a single family. Many patients are asymptomatic until the hemostatic system is stressed by surgery or trauma. Treatment is similar to that for hemophilia A. (From Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1008)
MSH

deficiency of blood coagulation factor IX inherited as an X-linked disorder; clinical features resemble those in hemophilia A, but patients present with fewer symptoms.
CSP

An X-linked inherited bleeding disorder caused by deficiency of the coagulation factor IX.
NCI

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chromafinní granula

Organelles in CHROMAFFIN CELLS located in the adrenal glands and various other organs. These granules are the site of the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.
MSH

Specialized secretory vesicle found in the cells of adrenal glands and various other organs, which is concerned with the synthesis, storage, metabolism, and secretion of epinephrine and norepinephrine. [GOC:jl, PMID:19158310, PMID:1961743]
GO

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chromafinní systém

The cells of the body which stain with chromium salts. They occur along the sympathetic nerves, in the adrenal gland, and in various other organs.
MSH

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