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cilie

Populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates (CILIOPHORA) or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated EPITHELIUM. Each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of CYTOPLASM. The movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live. The movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

populations of thin, motile processes found covering the surface of ciliates or the free surface of the cells making up ciliated epithelium; each cilium arises from a basic granule in the superficial layer of cytoplasm; the movement of cilia propels ciliates through the liquid in which they live, and the movement of cilia on a ciliated epithelium serves to propel a surface layer of mucus or fluid.
CSP

A specialized eukaryotic organelle that consists of a filiform extrusion of the cell surface. Each cilium is bounded by an extrusion of the cytoplasmic membrane, and contains a regular longitudinal array of microtubules, anchored basally in a centriole. [GOC:kmv, ISBN:0198547684]
GO

An organelle that protrudes outward from the cell body. It consists of a specialized arrangement of 9 doublet microtubules in a ring with or without a core of 2 microtubules and is enclosed in a plasma membrane coat. Motile cilia contain the motor protein dynein.
NCI

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corpus ciliare

A ring of tissue extending from the scleral spur to the ora serrata of the retina. It consists of the uveal portion and the epithelial portion. The ciliary muscle is in the uveal portion and the ciliary processes are in the epithelial portion.
MSH

A part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye. The ciliary body includes the ring-shaped muscle that changes the size of the pupil and the shape of the lens when the eye focuses. It also makes the fluid that fills the eye.
NCI

Tissue located behind the iris and composed of muscle and epithelium. Its functions include the production of aqueous humor and changing the shape of the crystalline lens.
NCI

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cilie – poruchy motility

Conditions caused by abnormal CILIA movement in the body, usually causing KARTAGENER SYNDROME, chronic respiratory disorders, chronic SINUSITIS, and chronic OTITIS. Abnormal ciliary beating is likely due to defects in any of the 200 plus ciliary proteins, such as missing motor enzyme DYNEIN arms.
MSH

Defective movements of the cilia. It includes abnormal movements of the cilia in the nose and paranasal sinuses, the respiratory tract and spermatozoa.
NCI

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cimetidin

A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRINS output. It also blocks the activity of CYTOCHROME P-450 which might explain proposals for use in NEOADJUVANT THERAPY.
MSH

histamine congener; competitively inhibits histamine binding to H2 receptors, inhibits gastric acid secretion, pepsin, and gastrin output, and blocks the activity of cytochrome P-450.
CSP

A drug usually used to treat stomach ulcers and heartburn. It is also commonly used in a regimen to prevent allergic reactions.
NCI

A histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist. Enhancing anti-tumor cell-mediated responses, cimetidine blocks histamine`s ability to stimulate suppressor T lymphocyte activity and to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell activity and interleukin-2 production. Cimetidine also may inhibit tumor growth by suppressing histamine`s growth-factor activity and blocking histamine-induced stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic growth factor. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39185&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39185&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C374″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A histamine H(2)-receptor antagonist. Enhancing anti-tumor cell-mediated responses, cimetidine blocks histamine`s ability to stimulate suppressor T lymphocyte activity and to inhibit natural killer (NK) cell activity and interleukin-2 production. Cimetidine also may inhibit tumor growth by suppressing histamine`s growth-factor activity and blocking histamine-induced stimulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a pro-angiogenic growth factor. (NCI04)
NCI

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cinanserin

A serotonin antagonist with limited antihistaminic, anticholinergic, and immunosuppressive activity.
MSH

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chinovník

A genus of rubiaceous South American trees that yields the toxic CINCHONA ALKALOIDS from their bark; QUININE; QUINIDINE; chinconine, cinchonidine and others are used to treat malaria and cardiac arrhythmias.
MSH

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chininové alkaloidy

Alkaloids extracted from various species of Cinchona.
MSH

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kinematografická angiografie

Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.
MSH

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kineradiografie

motion picture study of successive images appearing on a fluoroscopic screen.
CSP

motion picture study of successive radiographic images.
CSP

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Cinnamomum zeylanicum

The tree which is known for its bark which is sold as cinnamon. The oil contains about 65-80% cinnamaldehyde and 10% EUGENOL and many TERPENES.
MSH

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cinnarizin

A piperazine derivative having histamine H1-receptor and calcium-channel blocking activity with vasodilating and antiemetic properties but it induces PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS.
MSH

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cinoxacin

Synthetic antimicrobial related to OXOLINIC ACID and NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.
MSH

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Ciona intestinalis

The only species of a cosmopolitan ascidian. It is useful as a research animal.
MSH

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ciprofloxacin

A broad-spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
MSH

A drug that is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and is being studied in the treatment of bladder cancer. Cipro is a type of fluoroquinolone.
NCI

a drug used to treat a cancer as well as an infection
CHV

A synthetic broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme essential for DNA replication. This agent is more active against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40784&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40784&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C375″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

broad spectrum antimicrobial carboxyfluoroquinoline.
CSP

A synthetic broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Ciprofloxacin binds to and inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase, an enzyme essential for DNA replication. This agent is more active against Gram-negative bacteria than Gram-positive bacteria. (NCI04)
NCI

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denní rytmus

The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
MSH

rhythmic recurrences of certain phenomena in living organisms occurring at about the same time of day, i.e., on a 24 hour cycle.
CSP

Any biological process in an organism that recurs with a regularity of approximately 24 hours. [GOC:bf, GOC:go_curators]
GO

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circulus arteriosus Willisi

A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
MSH

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cirkulární dichroismus

A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

planar polarization converts to eliptic polarization when plane polarized light travels through an optically active medium.
CSP

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krevní oběh, dýchání – fyziologické jevy

Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
MSH

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cirkumcize u mužů

Excision of the prepuce of the penis (FORESKIN) or part of it.
MSH

Circumcision is the removal of the foreskin, which is the skin that covers the tip of the penis. In the United States, it is often done before a new baby leaves the hospital. There are medical benefits and risks to circumcision. Possible benefits include a lower risk of urinary tract infections, penile cancer and sexually transmitted diseases. The risks include pain and a low risk of bleeding or infection. These risks are higher for older babies, boys and men.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) does not recommend routine circumcision. Parents need to decide what is best for their sons, based on their religious, cultural and personal preferences.


MEDLINEPLUS

Surgical removal of the prepuce (foreskin) of a male; the foreskin is the fold of skin covering the glans of the penis.
NCI

Surgery to remove part or all of the foreskin (loose skin that covers the head of the penis).
NCI

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cisplatina

An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
MSH

inorganic, water soluble platinum complex; radiation sensitizing agent.
CSP

A drug used to treat many types of cancer. Cisplatin contains the metal platinum. It kills cancer cells by damaging their DNA and stopping them from dividing. Cisplatin is a type of alkylating agent.
NCI

An inorganic platinum agent (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) with antineoplastic activity. Cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39515&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39515&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C376″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An inorganic platinum agent (cis-diamminedichloroplatinum) with antineoplastic activity. Cisplatin forms highly reactive, charged, platinum complexes which bind to nucleophilic groups such as GC-rich sites in DNA, inducing intrastrand and interstrand DNA cross-links, as well as DNA-protein cross-links. These cross-links result in apoptosis and cell growth inhibition. (NCI04)
NCI

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Structure of cisterna chyli

An enlarged sac-like lymph vessel located in the lumbar region of the abdominal cavity, just right of the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
MSH

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citalopram

A furancarbonitrile that is one of the SEROTONIN UPTAKE INHIBITORS used as an antidepressant. The drug is also effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics and is used in depressed patients who also suffer from tardive dyskinesia in preference to tricyclic antidepressants, which aggravate this condition.
MSH

selective neuronal serotonin reuptake inhibitor and a clinically effective antidepressant with tolerable side effects; effective in reducing ethanol uptake in alcoholics.
CSP

a kind of antidepressant drug
CHV

A drug used to treat depression. It belongs to the families of drugs called antidepressant agents and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).
NCI

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Prilocaine Hydrochloride

The hydrochloride salt form of prilocaine, an intermediate-acting local anesthetic of the amide type chemically related to lidocaine. Prilocaine hydrochloride binds to voltage-gated sodium ion channels in the neuronal membrane, thereby preventing the permeability of sodium ions. This leads to a stabilization of the neuronal membrane and inhibits depolarization and results in a reversible blockage of nerve impulse generation and propagation along nerve fibres and subsequent reversible loss of sensation.
NCI

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města

A large or important municipality of a country, usually a major metropolitan center.
MSH

A large and densely populated urban area; a city specified in an address.
NCI

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anhydridy citrakonové

Methylmaleic anhydrides.
MSH

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citrát-(si)-synthasa

the first enzyme of the Krebs` cycle transfers the 2-carbon unit from acetyl coA to oxaloacetate, forming citrate.
CSP

Enzyme that catalyzes the first step of the tricarboxylic acid cycle (CITRIC ACID CYCLE). It catalyzes the reaction of oxaloacetate and acetyl CoA to form citrate and coenzyme A. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 4.1.3.7.
MSH

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citráty

citric acid, its salts or esters; found in citrus fruits; an intermediate in the Krebs cycle; used as an anticoagulant for stored blood specimens.
CSP

A salt or ester of citric acid.
NCI

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citrátový cyklus

A series of oxidative reactions in the breakdown of acetyl units derived from GLUCOSE; FATTY ACIDS; or AMINO ACIDS by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediates. The end products are CARBON DIOXIDE, water, and energy in the form of phosphate bonds.
MSH

series of reactions involving oxidation of a two-carbon acetyl unit to carbon dioxide and water with the production of high-energy phosphate bonds by means of tricarboxylic acid intermediate.
CSP

A nearly universal metabolic pathway in which the acetyl group of acetyl coenzyme A is effectively oxidized to two CO2 and four pairs of electrons are transferred to coenzymes. The acetyl group combines with oxaloacetate to form citrate, which undergoes successive transformations to isocitrate, 2-oxoglutarate, succinyl-CoA, succinate, fumarate, malate, and oxaloacetate again, thus completing the cycle. In eukaryotes the tricarboxylic acid is confined to the mitochondria. See also glyoxylate cycle. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The Krebs cycle, also called the citric acid cycle, is a fundamental metabolic pathway involving eight enzymes essential for energy production through aerobic respiration, and, like glycolysis, arose early in evolution. This pathway is also an important source of biosynthetic building blocks used in gluconeogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, and fatty acid biosynthesis. The Krebs cycle takes place in mitochondria where it oxidizes acetyl-CoA, releasing carbon dioxide and extracting energy primarily as the reduced high-energy electron carriers NADH and FADH2. NADH and FADH2 transfer chemical energy from metabolic intermediates to the electron transport chain to create a different form of energy, a gradient of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The energy of the proton gradient in turn drives synthesis of the high-energy phosphate bonds in ATP, the common energy currency of the cell used to drive a huge variety of reactions and processes. An acetyl-CoA molecule (2 carbons) enters the cycle when citrate synthase condenses it with oxaloacetate (4 carbons) to create citrate (6 carbons). One source of the acetyl-CoA that enters the Krebs cycle is the conversion of pyruvate from glycolysis to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenase. Acetyl-CoA is a key metabolic junction, derived not only from glycolysis but also from the oxidation of fatty acids. As the cycle proceeds, the Krebs cycle intermediates are oxidized, transferring their energy to create reduced NADH and FADH2. The oxidation of the metabolic intermediates of the pathway also releases two carbon dioxide molecules for each acetyl-CoA that enters the cycle, leaving the net carbons the same with each turn of the cycle. This carbon dioxide, along with more released by pyruvate dehydrogenase, is the source of CO2 released into the atmosphere when you breathe. The Krebs cycle, like other metabolic pathways, is tightly regulated to efficiently meet the needs of the cell and the organism. The irreversible synthesis of acetyl-CoA from pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is one important regulatory step, and is inhibited by high concentrations of ATP that indicate abundant energy. Citrate synthase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and isocitrate dehydrogenase are all key regulatory steps in the cycle and are each inhibited by abundant energy in the cell, indicated through high concentrations of ATP or NADH. The activity of the Krebs cycle is closely linked to the availability of oxygen, although none of the steps in the pathway directly use oxygen. Oxygen is required for the electron transport chain to function, which recycles NADH back to NAD+ and FADH2 back to FADH, providing NAD+ and ADH required by enzymes in the Krebs cycle. If the oxygen supply to a muscle cell or a yeast cell is low, NAD+ and FADH levels fall, the Krebs cycle cannot proceed forward, and the cell must resort to fermentation to continue making ATP. Some Krebs cycle enzymes require non-protein cofactors for activity, such as thiamine, vitamin B1. Insufficient quantities of this vitamin in the diet leads to decreased activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and a decrease in the ability of the Krebs cycle to meet metabolic demands, causing the disease beriberi. Although the elucidation of the Krebs cycle remains one of the landmarks of biochemistry, aspects of the Krebs cycle and its enzymes are still actively researched in the modern proteomic era.
NCI

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citrinin

Antibiotic and mycotoxin from Aspergillus niveus and Penicillium citrinum.
MSH

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Citrobacter

A genus of gram-negative, rod-shaped enterobacteria that can use citrate as the sole source of carbon.
MSH

A genus of gram-negative coliform bacteria in the Proteobacteria phylum.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Citrobacter genus level.
NCI

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