Additional pages

glutaminfruktosa-6-fosfáttransaminasa (izomerizující)

An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of fructose-6-phosphate plus GLUTAMINE from GLUTAMATE plus glucosamine-6-phosphate.
MSH

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glukosa

A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
MSH

aldohexose occurring as the D form and found as a free monosaccharide in fruits and other parts of plants and in the normal blood of all animals; the end product of carbohydrate metabolism and the chief source of energy for most living organisms.
CSP

A type of sugar; the chief source of energy for living organisms.
NCI

A hexose with an aldehyde group; in which each of the 5 remaining carbons other than the aldehyde group has one hydroxyl group in the R,S,R, and R configuration counting from the first hydroxyl containing carbon next to the aldehyde in the straight chain (Fisher) projection; otherwise all carbons have exclusively hydrogens. Occurs mostly as pyran (6-membered oxygen containing ring or oxane) and rarely as furan (5-membered oxygen containing ring) or straight chain. When glucose forms a ring an additional “”anomeric”” asymmetric carbon is created which is denoted as “”alpha”” or “”beta””. For isomers see http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glucose.
NCI

A simple sugar monosaccharide having two isoforms, alpha and beta, with a chemical structure of C6H12O6 that acts as an energy source for both plants and animals by reacting with oxygen, generating carbon dioxide and water, and releasing energy.
NCI

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glukosová clamp technika

Maintenance of a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin. It is used for the study of metabolic rates (e.g., in glucose, lipid, amino acid metabolism) at constant glucose concentration.
MSH

technique that maintains a constant blood glucose level by perfusion or infusion with glucose or insulin; used in metabolic rate studies.
CSP

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glukosadehydrogenasy

D-Glucose:1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-glucose to D-glucono-gamma-lactone and reduced acceptor. Any acceptor except molecular oxygen is permitted. Includes EC 1.1.1.47; EC 1.1.1.118; EC 1.1.1.119 and EC 1.1.99.10.
MSH

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glukosaoxidasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
MSH

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transportní proteiny pro sodík a glukosu

Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
MSH

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glukosa – roztok hypertonický

Solution that is usually 10 percent glucose but may be higher. An isotonic solution of glucose is 5 percent.
MSH

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glukosa – test tolerance

A test to determine the ability of an individual to maintain HOMEOSTASIS of BLOOD GLUCOSE. It includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after oral glucose intake (75 or 100 g) or intravenous infusion (0.5 g/kg).
MSH

oral or intravenous method of assessing the efficiency of an individual to maintain homeostasis of blood glucose, to absorb and store excessive quantities of glucose; includes measuring blood glucose levels in a fasting state, and at prescribed intervals before and after intake.
CSP

A test that involves administration of a know quantity of glucose as a means of screening for glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus. Typically a baseline (fasting plasma or serum glucose) is drawn prior to the administration of the glucose bolus. Serial plasma glucose levels are obtained (e.g. 30min, 1hr, 2hr, 3hr) and a plot of plasma glucose versus time is created. Comparison of these values against standardized results can be used in establishing the diagnosis of glucose intolerance or diabetes mellitus.
NCI

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proteiny usnadňující transport glukosy

transport protein involved in the uptake of glucose.
CSP

A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
MSH

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glukosa-6-fosfatasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of D-glucose 6-phosphate and water to D-glucose and orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.9.
MSH

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glukosafosfátdehydrogenasa

Encoded as 2 alternative isoforms by human housekeeping G6PD Gene (G6PD Family), 514-/560-aa 59-kDa homodimeric or homotetrameric cytosolic Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase mainly produces NADPH, an electron donor to oxidizing agents and in biosynthetic reactions. G6PD deficiency may cause jaundice, hemolysis, or non-spherocytic hemolytic anemia. (NCI)
NCI

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glukosafosfátdehydrogenasa – nedostatek

A disease-producing enzyme deficiency subject to many variants, some of which cause a deficiency of GLUCOSE-6-PHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE activity in erythrocytes, leading to hemolytic anemia.
MSH

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glukosa-6-fosfátisomerasa

An aldose-ketose isomerase that catalyzes the reversible interconversion of glucose 6-phosphate and fructose 6-phosphate. In prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms it plays an essential role in glycolytic and gluconeogenic pathways. In mammalian systems the enzyme is found in the cytoplasm and as a secreted protein. This secreted form of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase has been referred to as autocrine motility factor or neuroleukin, and acts as a cytokine which binds to the AUTOCRINE MOTILITY FACTOR RECEPTOR. Deficiency of the enzyme in humans is an autosomal recessive trait, which results in CONGENITAL NONSPHEROCYTIC HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA.
MSH

Encoded by human GPI Gene (GPI Family), Glucose-6-Phosphate Isomerase, Neuroleukin, and Autocrine Motility Factor function in different capacities. In glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, homodimeric cytoplasmic GPI catalyzes reversible G6P and F6P isomerization. Produced by lectin-stimulated T-cells, secreted non-mitogenic NLK lymphokine acts early in antibody-secreting cell formation to induce Ig secretion. Also a neurotrophic factor for spinal and sensory neurons, NLK exhibits GPI activity. AMF is a 558-amino acid 55-kD autocrine motility polypeptide. The gene product is partly homologous to a conserved region of HTLV-III-LAV external envelope protein. Gene defects cause nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia and hydrops fetalis. (from LocusLink, Swiss-Prot, OMIM, and NCI)
NCI

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UTP-glukosa-1-fosfáturidylyltransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
MSH

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glukosafosfáty

intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism.
CSP

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glukosidasy

Enzymes that hydrolyze O-glucosyl-compounds. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.2.1.-.
MSH

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glukosinoláty

Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
MSH

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glukosylceramidasa

A glycosidase that hydrolyzes a glucosylceramide to yield free ceramide plus glucose. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to abnormally high concentrations of glucosylceramide in the brain in GAUCHER DISEASE. EC 3.2.1.45.
MSH

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glukosylceramidy

Cerebrosides which contain as their polar head group a glucose moiety bound in glycosidic linkage to the hydroxyl group of ceramides. Their accumulation in tissue, due to a defect in beta-glucosidase, is the cause of Gaucher`s disease.
MSH

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glukosyltransferasy

Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
MSH

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glukuronáty

Salts and esters of GLUCURONIC ACID.
MSH

derivatives of uronic acid found throughout the plant and animal kingdoms; they detoxify drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form glucuronides in the liver which are more water-soluble metabolites that can be easily eliminated from the body.
CSP

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lepivé proteiny – Drosophila

Glycosylated proteins which are part of the salivary glue that Drosophila larvae secrete as a means of fixing themselves to an external substrate for the duration of the pre-pupal and pupal period.
MSH

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glutamátdekarboxylasa

A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 4.1.1.15.
MSH

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glutamátdehydrogenasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-glutamate and water to 2-oxoglutarate and NH3 in the presence of NAD+. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.4.1.2.
MSH

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glutamátsynthasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of 2 molecules of glutamate from glutamine plus alpha-ketoglutarate in the presence of NADPH. EC 1.4.1.13.
MSH

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glutamáty

Salts and esters of glutamic acid.
MSH

non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form; the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
CSP

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glutaminasa

Encoded by human GA Gene, the 602-amino acid 66 kD (precursor) Glutaminase (GA Family) has a putative N-terminal mitochondrial import presequence. Expressed in liver, brain, and pancreas, but not in kidney, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, or placenta, GA protein shares 94% and 72% sequence identity with rat liver and kidney glutaminases, respectively. Containing two ankyrin repeats, human glutaminase is most similar to rat liver-type glutaminase, but is not liver specific. Involved in regulation of glutamine catabolism, mitochondrial glutaminase converts L-glutamine to L-glutamate and NH3. Glutaminase expression and activity depend on the cell proliferation state with highest levels at the beginning of the exponential growth phase. (NCI)
NCI

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glutamin

A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
MSH

non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and involved in many metabolic processes; synthesized from glutamic acid and ammonia; the principal carrier of nitrogen in the body and an important energy source for many cells.
CSP

An amino acid used in nutrition therapy. It is also being studied for the treatment of diarrhea caused by radiation therapy to the pelvis.
NCI

Amino acid with side chain -CH2CH2CONH2.
NCI

a non essential amino acid
CHV

A nonessential amino acid. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of urea (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purines (necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids). Glutamic acid-to-glutamine conversion, in which an ammonia group is added to glutamic acid (catalyzed by glutamine synthase), is of central importance in the regulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the body. This agent is a substrate for the production of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA) and is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. Glutamine may become a conditionally essential amino acid during certain catabolic states. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42298&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42298&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C522″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A nonessential amino acid. Glutamine can donate the ammonia on its side chain to the formation of urea (for eventual excretion by the kidneys) and to purines (necessary for the synthesis of nucleic acids). Glutamic acid-to-glutamine conversion, in which an ammonia group is added to glutamic acid (catalyzed by glutamine synthase), is of central importance in the regulation of toxic levels of ammonia in the body. This agent is a substrate for the production of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and GABA) and is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. Glutamine may become a conditionally essential amino acid during certain catabolic states.
NCI

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glutaminsynthetasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP, L-glutamate, and NH3 to ADP, orthophosphate, and L-glutamine. It also acts more slowly on 4-methylene-L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 6.3.1.2.
MSH

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glutamát-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates glutamic acid with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.17.
MSH

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