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koka

Any of several South American shrubs of the Erythroxylon genus (and family) that yield COCAINE; the leaves are chewed with alum for CNS stimulation.
MSH

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kokain

An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
MSH

alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca; has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse; acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake; it is also a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose.
CSP

Cocaine is a powerful drug that stimulates the brain. People who use it can form a strong addiction. They may have to use more and more of the drug to get high. It`s sold on the street as a fine, white powder. There are two forms of cocaine: hydrochloride salt and freebase. The salt dissolves in water. People can take it in a vein or in the nose. The freebase form can be smoked. Crack is the street name of a smokable form of cocaine.

No matter how cocaine is taken, it is dangerous. Some of the most common serious problems include

  • Heart problems, including heart attacks
  • Respiratory effects, including respiratory failure
  • Nervous system problems, including strokes
  • Digestive problems

Any of these can be fatal. Using cocaine with alcohol is a common cause of drug-related death.

NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse


MEDLINEPLUS

A tropane alkaloid with central nervous systems (CNS) stimulating and local anesthetic activity. Cocaine binds to the dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine transport proteins and inhibits the re-uptake of dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine into pre-synaptic neurons. This leads to an accumulation of the respective neurotransmitters in the synaptic cleft and may result in increased postsynaptic receptor activation. The mechanism of action through which cocaine exerts its local anesthetic effects is by binding to and blocking the voltage-gated sodium channels in the neuronal cell membrane. By stabilizing neuronal membranes, cocaine inhibits the initiation and conduction of nerve impulses and produces a reversible loss of sensation.
NCI

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kokarcinogeneze

The combination of two or more different factors in the production of cancer.
MSH

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Coccidia

A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
MSH

subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs; organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise three orders: Eimeriida, Eucoccidiida and Lankesterellidae.
CSP

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Coccidioides

A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
MSH

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Coccidioides immitis

mitosporic fungal species which causes coccidiodomycosis.
CSP

The sole species of COCCIDIOIDES. It can cause an acute, benign respiratory infection as well as a fatal, chronic systemic disease.
MSH

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kokcidioidin

A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
MSH

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kokcidioidomykóza

Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
MSH

infection with a fungus of the genus Coccidioides, species C. immitis; primary form is an acute, benign, self limited respiratory infection due to inhalation of spores and varying in severity; secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement.
CSP

A fungal infection caused by Coccidioides immitis. Affected individuals usually have mild flu-like symptoms. However, pneumonia and systemic involvement with the formation of abscesses may develop as complications of the disease.
NCI

Valley Fever is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold) called Coccidioides. The fungi live in the soil of dry areas like the southwestern U.S. Anyone exposed to the fungus can get the infection. The highest risk is for people whose jobs expose them to soil dust. These include construction workers, agricultural workers, and military forces doing field training. The infection cannot spread from person to person.

Valley Fever is often mild, with no symptoms. If you have symptoms, they may include a flu-like illness, with fever, cough, headache, rash and muscle aches. Most people get better within several weeks or months. A small number of people may develop a chronic lung or widespread infection.

Valley Fever is diagnosed by testing your blood, other body fluids, or tissues. Many people with the acute infection get better without treatment. In some cases, doctors may prescribe antifungal drugs for acute infections. Severe infections require antifungal drugs.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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kokcidióza

Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
MSH

A parasitic infection caused by Coccidia. It affects livestock, birds and humans. In humans the parasite infests the intestinal tract and may cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, nausea and vomiting.
NCI

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kokcidiostatika

Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals.
MSH

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kostrč

A small bone located at the bottom of the spine. The coccyx is a result of 3-5 fused rudimentary vertebrae. (NCI)
NCI

The small bone at the bottom of the spine. It is made up of 3-5 fused bones.
NCI

A small bone located at the bottom of the spine. The coccyx is a result of 3-5 fused rudimentary vertebrae.
NCI

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kochlea

The part of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) that is concerned with hearing. It forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, as a snail-like structure that is situated almost horizontally anterior to the VESTIBULAR LABYRINTH.
MSH

part of the internal ear that is concerned with hearing; forms the anterior part of the labyrinth, is conical, and is placed almost horizontally anterior to the vestibule.
CSP

The snail shell-shaped auditory component of the inner ear. It contains the sensory organ of hearing.
NCI

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aquaeductus cochlearis

A fine channel that passes through the TEMPORAL BONE near the SCALA TYMPANI (the basilar turn of the cochlea). The cochlear aqueduct connects the PERILYMPH-filled bony labyrinth to the SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
MSH

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nemoci kochley

Pathological processes of the snail-like structure (COCHLEA) of the inner ear (LABYRINTH) which can involve its nervous tissue, blood vessels, or fluid (ENDOLYMPH).
MSH

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kochlea – implantáty

Electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function. In the COCHLEA, the hair cells (HAIR CELLS, VESTIBULAR) may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers. The device electrically stimulates the COCHLEAR NERVE to create sound sensation.
MSH

electronic hearing devices typically used for patients with normal outer and middle ear function, but defective inner ear function; in the cochlea, the hair cells may be absent or damaged but there are residual nerve fibers, the device electrically stimulates the cochlear nerve to create sound sensation.
CSP

a surgically implanted electronic device that helps people hear
CHV

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kochleární mikrofonní potenciály

The electric response of the cochlear hair cells to acoustic stimulation.
MSH

electrical potentials generated in the hair cells of the organ of Corti in response to acoustic stimulation.
CSP

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nervus cochlearis

The cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE). The cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the SPIRAL GANGLION and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei (COCHLEAR NUCLEUS) of the BRAIN STEM. They mediate the sense of hearing.
MSH

cochlear part of the 8th cranial nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve); cochlear nerve fibers originate from neurons of the spiral ganglion and project peripherally to cochlear hair cells and centrally to the cochlear nuclei of the brain stem; mediates the sense of hearing.
CSP

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Cockayneův syndrom

A syndrome characterized by multiple system abnormalities including DWARFISM; PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS; PREMATURE AGING; and HEARING LOSS. It is caused by mutations of a number of autosomal recessive genes encoding proteins that involve transcriptional-coupled DNA REPAIR processes. Cockayne syndrome is classified by the severity and age of onset. Type I (classical; CSA) is early childhood onset in the second year of life; type II (congenital; CSB) is early onset at birth with severe symptoms; type III (xeroderma pigmentosum; XP) is late childhood onset with mild symptoms.
MSH

A genetic condition characterized by short stature, premature aging, sensitivity to light, and possibly deafness and mental retardation.
NCI

An autosomal recessive syndrome caused by mutations in the ERCC8 and ERCC6 genes. It is characterized by growth and developmental delay, vision and hearing impairment, and impairment of the peripheral nervous system function.
NCI

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švábi

Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
MSH

insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, Blattellidae, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.
CSP

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Cocos

A plant genus of the family ARECACEAE. It is a tropical palm tree that yields a large, edible hard-shelled fruit from which oil and fiber are also obtained.
MSH

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Cocos (Keeling) Islands

A group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka. (NCI)
NCI

A group of islands in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia, about halfway from Australia to Sri Lanka. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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rybí tuk

Oil obtained from fresh livers of the cod family, Gadidae. It is a source of VITAMIN A and VITAMIN D.
MSH

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kodein

An opioid analgesic related to MORPHINE but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects. It also acts centrally to suppress cough.
MSH

opioid analgesic related to morphine but with less potent analgesic properties and mild sedative effects; also acts centrally to suppress cough.
CSP

A naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine`s action on the cough center in the medulla.
NCI

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Codeine Phosphate

The phosphate salt of codeine, a naturally occurring phenanthrene alkaloid and opioid agonist with analgesic, antidiarrheal and antitussive activities. Codeine mimics the actions of endogenous opioids by binding to the opioid receptors at many sites within the central nervous system (CNS). Stimulation of mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a decrease in the release of nociceptive neurotransmitters such as substance P, GABA, dopamine, acetylcholine and noradrenaline; in addition, the codeine metabolite morphine induces opening of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels and blocks the opening of N-type voltage-gated calcium channels, resulting in hyperpolarization and reduced neuronal excitability. Stimulation of gut mu-subtype opioid receptors results in a reduction in intestinal motility and delayed intestinal transit times. Antitussive activity is mediated through codeine`s action on the cough center in the medulla.
NCI

A drug used to treat pain, cough, and diarrhea. It is made from opium or morphine and binds to opioid receptors in the central nervous system. Codeine phosphate is a type of opiate, a type of analgesic agent, a type of antitussive agent, and a type of antidiarrheal agent.
NCI

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kódování

The activity of implementing rules that are used to map the elements of one set onto the elements of another set, usually on a one-to-one basis.
NCI

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kodon

A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
MSH

A specific sequence of three adjacent bases on a strand of DNA or RNA that provides genetic code information for a particular amino acid.
NCI

In DNA or RNA, a sequence of 3 consecutive nucleotides that codes for a specific amino acid or signals the termination of gene translation (stop or termination codon).
NCI

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Cnidaria

phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts; includes the classes Anhozoa, Cubozoa, Hydrozoa, and Scyphozoa; members carry Cnidarian venoms.
CSP

A phylum of radially symmetrical invertebrates characterized by possession of stinging cells called nematocysts. It includes the classes ANTHOZOA; CUBOZOA; HYDROZOA, and SCYPHOZOA. Members carry CNIDARIAN VENOMS.
MSH

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láčkovci – jedy

Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
MSH

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kuandu

Prehensile-tailed PORCUPINES, in the family Erethizontidae.
MSH

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coenuróza

a rare infection caused by larvae of the dog tapeworm
CHV

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