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ductus choledochus

The largest bile duct. It is formed by the junction of the CYSTIC DUCT and the COMMON HEPATIC DUCT.
MSH

A tube that carries bile from the liver and the gallbladder through the pancreas and into the duodenum (the upper part of the small intestine). It is formed where the ducts from the liver and gallbladder are joined. It is part of the biliary duct system.
NCI

Bile ducts are passageways that carry bile. Two major bile ducts come together into a “trunk”-the common bile duct which empties into the upper part of the small intestine (the part next to the stomach).
NCI

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Litiáza ductus hepaticus communis

Gallstones that are present in the COMMON BILE DUCT, but are usually formed in the GALLBLADDER.
MSH

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cysta choledochu, typ I

Characterized by the fusiform or saccular dilatation of the COMMON BILE DUCT.
MSH

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ductus choledochus – nemoci

Diseases of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
MSH

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ductus choledochus – nádory

Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
MSH

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ARNAS IBILBIDE GARAIETAKO ZOLDURA/ HOTZALDI ARRUNTA

A catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection. It generally involves a runny nose, nasal congestion, and sneezing.
MSH

catarrhal disorder of the upper respiratory tract, which may be viral or a mixed infection; marked by acute coryza, slight rise in temperature, chilly sensations, and general indisposition.
CSP

Sneezing, sore throat, a stuffy nose, coughing – everyone knows the symptoms of the common cold. It is probably the most common illness. In the course of a year, people in the United States suffer 1 billion colds.

You can get a cold by touching your eyes or nose after you touch surfaces with cold germs on them. You can also inhale the germs. Symptoms usually begin 2 or 3 days after infection and last 2 to 14 days. Washing your hands and staying away from people with colds will help you avoid colds.

There is no cure for the common cold. For relief, try

  • Getting plenty of rest
  • Drinking fluids
  • Gargling with warm salt water
  • Using cough drops or throat sprays
  • Taking over-the-counter pain or cold medicines

However, do not give aspirin to children. And do not give cough medicine to children under four.

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

An inflammatory process affecting the nasal mucosa, usually caused by viruses (e.g., rhinovirus, adenovirus, parainfluenza virus, and coronavirus). It is characterized by chills, headaches, mucopurulent nasal discharge, coughing, and facial pain.
NCI

A disorder characterized by an infectious process involving the nasal mucosal.
NCI

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imunodeficience běžná variabilní

Heterogeneous group of immunodeficiency syndromes characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia of most isotypes, variable B-cell defects, and the presence of recurrent bacterial infections.
MSH

A primary immunodeficiency characterized by low levels or absence of all the immunoglobulin classes and lack of B-lymphocytes or plasma cells. It results in recurrent bacterial infections. Complications include autoimmune phenomena and cancer development.
NCI

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infekční nemoci – kontrola

Programs of surveillance designed to prevent the transmission of disease by any means from person to person or from animal to man.
MSH

efforts to prevent the transmission of infectious disease.
CSP

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infekční nemoci

broad class of diseases whose causative agents may be passed between individuals in many different ways.
CSP

Invasion and multiplication of germs in the body. Infections can occur in any part of the body and can spread throughout the body. The germs may be bacteria, viruses, yeast, or fungi. They can cause a fever and other problems, depending on where the infection occurs. When the body`s natural defense system is strong, it can often fight the germs and prevent infection. Some cancer treatments can weaken the natural defense system.
NCI

A disorder resulting from the presence and activity of a microbial, viral, or parasitic agent. It can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact. — 2003 (NCI)
NCI

Infectious diseases kill more people worldwide than any other single cause. Infectious diseases are caused by germs. Germs are tiny living things that are found everywhere – in air, soil and water. You can get infected by touching, eating, drinking or breathing something that contains a germ. Germs can also spread through animal and insect bites, kissing and sexual contact. Vaccines, proper hand washing and medicines can help prevent infections.

There are four main kinds of germs:

  • Bacteria – one-celled germs that multiply quickly and may release chemicals which can make you sick
  • Viruses – capsules that contain genetic material, and use your own cells to multiply
  • Fungi – primitive vegetables, like mushrooms or mildew
  • Protozoa – one-celled animals that use other living things for food and a place to live

NIH: National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder resulting from the presence and activity of a microbial, viral, or parasitic agent. It can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact.
NCI

A sequence of biological or biochemical events that are the result of contracting an infection.
NCI

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komunikace

The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
MSH

exchange or transmission of thoughts, messages, or information, as by speech, signals, writing, or behavior.
CSP

The exchange of information between objects, people, or groups.
NCI

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komunikace postižených – pomůcky

Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
MSH

physical or electronic implement or technology for aiding communication ability.
CSP

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komunikační bariéry

Those factors, such as language or sociocultural relationships, which interfere in the meaningful interpretation and transmission of ideas between individuals or groups.
MSH

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totální komunikace

Utilization of all available receptive and expressive modes for the purpose of achieving communication with the hearing impaired, such as gestures, postures, facial expression, types of voice, formal speech and non-speech systems, and simultaneous communication.
MSH

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komunikační média

The means of interchanging or transmitting and receiving information. Historically the media were written: books, journals, newspapers, and other publications; in the modern age the media include, in addition, radio, television, computers, and information networks.
MSH

Any mechanism of mass communication.
NCI

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komunikační poruchy

Disorders of verbal and nonverbal communication caused by receptive or expressive LANGUAGE DISORDERS, cognitive dysfunction (e.g., MENTAL RETARDATION), psychiatric conditions, and HEARING DISORDERS.
MSH

any of various disorders characterized by impaired verbal or nonverbal exchange or impaired transmission of thoughts, messages, or information.
CSP

detection of diminished ability to exchange thoughts, opinions, information, or other forms of communication such as disorders of language, reading, speech and hearing.
CSP

A disorder characterized by an individual`s inability to comprehend or share ideas or feelings because of an impairment in language, speech, or hearing.
NCI

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komunismus

A totalitarian system of government in which a single authoritarian party controls state-owned means of production with the professed aim of establishing a classless society.
MSH

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komunita

interacting population of individuals in a common location; a group of people with a common characteristic or interest living together within a larger society.
CSP

A set of people with some shared element. The substance of shared element varies widely, from geography to a situation to interest to lives and values. The term is widely used to evoke sense of collectivity.
NCI

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obvodní zubní lékařství

The practice of dentistry concerned with preventive as well as diagnostic and treatment programs in a circumscribed population.
MSH

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zdravotní pomocníci v komunitě

Persons trained to assist professional health personnel in communicating with residents in the community concerning needs and availability of health services.
MSH

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střediska zdravotní

Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
MSH

Community Health Centers (CHCs) are private, non-profit organizations that directly or indirectly (through contracts and cooperative agreements) provide primary health services and related services to residents of a defined geographic area that is medically undeserved. Community health centers have a three-fold mission. First, CHCs aim to improve access to care for low income, underserved, vulnerable populations. They are required to be located in medically-underserved rural and urban areas, and within those communities, they serve those with limited access to more mainstream health care. Second, CHCs provide a fully comprehensive range of primary care services, including “enabling” or support services. Third, they involve the community in both the management and governance of the center. (Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, http://www.jhsph.edu/hao/pcpc/whatchc.htm)
NCI

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komunitní zdravotní výchova

Draws on social relationships and organizations to reach large populations through media and interpersonal strategies that deliver messages and mechanisms to reduce chronic diseases.
NCI

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komunitní ošetřovatelská péče

General and comprehensive nursing practice directed to individuals, families, or groups as it relates to and contributes to the health of a population. This is not an official program of a Public Health Department.
MSH

A discipline in nursing with a focus on the delivery of health care and disease prevention to residents living in a common geographic area.
NCI

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veřejné zdravotnické služby

Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
MSH

services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health provided for individuals in the community.
CSP

Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health service provided for individuals in the community.
NCI

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komunitní lékařství

A branch of medicine concerned with the total health of the individual within the home environment and in the community, and with the application of comprehensive care to the prevention and treatment of illness in the entire community.
MSH

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střediska psychiatrická

Facilities which administer the delivery of psychologic and psychiatric services to people living in a neighborhood or community.
MSH

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duševní zdraví veřejnosti – služby

Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health services provided for individuals in the community.
MSH

organized services to provide diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive mental health care for individuals in the community.
CSP

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veřejné lékárenské služby

Total pharmaceutical services provided to the public through community pharmacies.
MSH

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komunitní psychiatrie

Branch of psychiatry concerned with the provision and delivery of a coordinated program of mental health care to a specified population. The foci included in this concept are: all social, psychological and physical factors related to etiology, prevention, and maintaining positive mental health in the community.
MSH

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společenskoinstitucionální vztahy

The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
MSH

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komorbidita

The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
MSH

The condition of having two or more diseases at the same time.
NCI

a concomitant but unrelated disease or pathologic process; usually used in epidemiology to indicate the coexistence of two or more disease processes.
CSP

The coexistence of two or more disease processes.
NCI

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