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glutaraldehyd

One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.
MSH

pentanedial; 5-carbon saturated chain with a highly reactive aldehyde group on each end; used as a protein crosslinking agent, fixative, disinfectant, and mutagen.
CSP

A general purpose reagent is a chemical reagent that has general laboratory application, that is used to collect, prepare, and examine specimens from the human body for diagnostic histopathology, cytology, and hematology, and that is not labeled or otherwise intended for a specific diagnostic application. General purpose reagents include cytological preservatives, decalcifying reagents, fixatives and adhesives, tissue processing reagents, isotonic solutions, and pH buffers.
SPN

A water-soluble oily liquid, C5H8O2, containing two aldehyde groups, used as a disinfectant and as a fixative for biological tissues.
NCI

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glutaráty

dicarboxylic acid or its salts or esters involved in the metabolism of tryptophan and lysine.
CSP

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glutathion

A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
MSH

tripeptide composed of gamma-glutamate, cysteine, and glycine; an important endogenous reducing agent involved in oxidative respiration and free radical scavenging.
CSP

A substance found in plant and animal tissues that has many functions in a cell. These include activating certain enzymes and destroying toxic compounds and chemicals that contain oxygen.
NCI

A tripeptide comprised of three amino acids (cysteine, glutamic acid, and glycine) present in most mammalian tissue. Glutathione acts as an antioxidant, a free radical scavenger and a detoxifying agent. Glutathione is also important as a cofactor for the enzyme glutathione peroxidase, in the uptake of amino acids, and in the synthesis of leukotrienes. As a substrate for glutathione S-transferase, this agent reacts with a number of harmful chemical species, such as halides, epoxides and free radicals, to form harmless inactive products. In erythrocytes, these reactions prevent oxidative damage through the reduction of methemoglobin and peroxides. Glutathione is also involved in the formation and maintenance of disulfide bonds in proteins and in the transport of amino acids across cell membranes.
NCI

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glutathionperoxidasa

An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
MSH

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glutathionreduktasa

Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
MSH

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glutathionsynthasa

One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.3.
MSH

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glutathiontransferasa

A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
MSH

A family of enzymes involved in metabolism and in making toxic compounds less harmful to the body.
NCI

A class of enzymes that catalyze the reaction of glutathione with an acceptor molecule (an arene oxide) to form an S-substituted glutathione; a key step in detoxification of many substances; start of the mercapturic acid pathway.
NCI

A group of enzymes of broad specificity. It catalyzes reaction of substrates RX and glutathione into HX and R-S-Glutathione. R may be an aliphatic, aromatic or heterocyclic group; X may be a sulfate, nitrile or halide group. Also catalyses the addition of aliphatic epoxides and arene oxides to glutathione, the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrile, certain isomerization reactions and disulfide interchange. [EC 2.5.1.18 created 1976 (EC 2.5.1.12, EC 2.5.1.13, EC 2.5.1.14 and EC 4.4.1.7 created 1972, incorporated 1976)]
NCI

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gluteny

Prolamins in the endosperm of SEEDS from the Triticeae tribe which includes species of WHEAT; BARLEY; and RYE.
MSH

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glutethimid

A hypnotic and sedative. Its use has been largely superseded by other drugs.
MSH

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glyceraldehyd

aldose, the aldehyde form of the triose derived by oxidation of glycerol.
CSP

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glyceraldehyd-3-fosfát

An aldotriose which is an important intermediate in glycolysis and in tryptophan biosynthesis.
MSH

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glyceraldehyd-3-fosfátdehydrogenasy

Enzymes that catalyze the dehydrogenation of GLYCERALDEHYDE 3-PHOSPHATE. Several types of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase exist including phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating varieties and ones that transfer hydrogen to NADP and ones that transfer hydrogen to NAD.
MSH

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glyceridy

GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.
MSH

glycerol esterified with one or more organic acids, particularly long chain fatty acids.
CSP

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glycerol

A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.
MSH

1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, a key intermediate in glucose metabolism; also serves as the bridge between hydrophobic “tails” and hydrophilic “heads” of many membrane lipids; reagent is used as a water-soluble solvent and lubricant.
CSP

A trihydroxyalcohol with localized osmotic diuretic and laxative effects. Glycerin elevates the blood plasma osmolality thereby extracting water from tissues into interstitial fluid and plasma. This agent also prevents water reabsorption in the proximal tubule in the kidney leading to an increase in water and sodium excretion and a reduction in blood volume. Administered rectally, glycerin exerts a hyperosmotic laxative effect by attracting water into the rectum, thereby relieving constipation. In addition, glycerin is used as a solvent, humectant and vehicle in various pharmaceutical preparations.
NCI

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glycerolkinasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of glycerol 3-phosphate from ATP and glycerol. Dihydroxyacetone and L-glyceraldehyde can also act as acceptors; UTP and, in the case of the yeast enzyme, ITP and GTP can act as donors. It provides a way for glycerol derived from fats or glycerides to enter the glycolytic pathway. EC 2.7.1.30.
MSH

Glycerol kinase (524 aa, ~57 kDa) is encoded by the human GK gene. This protein plays a role in glycerol metabolism.
NCI

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glycerol-3-fosfát-O-acyltransferasa

An enzyme that transfers acyl groups from acyl-CoA to glycerol-3-phosphate to form monoglyceride phosphates. It acts only with CoA derivatives of fatty acids of chain length above C-10. Also forms diglyceride phosphates. EC 2.3.1.15.
MSH

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glycerolfosfáty

Any salt or ester of glycerophosphoric acid.
MSH

first step in the phosphatidic acid synthesis pathway.
CSP

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glycerylethery

Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.
MSH

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nitroglycerin

A volatile vasodilator which relieves ANGINA PECTORIS by stimulating GUANYLATE CYCLASE and lowering cytosolic calcium. It is also sometimes used for TOCOLYSIS and explosives.
MSH

volatile vasodilator which relieves angina pectoris by stimulating guanylate cyclase and lowering cytosolic calcium; an explosive compound rendered safe when compounded in tablets with mannitol.
CSP

In medicine, a substance used as a drug to treat certain heart conditions and to widen the openings in blood vessels. Nitroglycerin is being studied as a way to help chemotherapy work better by making tumor cells more sensitive to the drugs. It is a type of vasodilator.
NCI

An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Nitroglycerin is converted into nitric oxide (NO) in smooth muscle and activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing cGMP concentration, and resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. Dilatation of the veins results in decreased venous return to the heart, thereby decreasing left ventricular volume (reduced preload) and decreasing myocardial oxygen requirements. Arteriolar relaxation reduces arteriolar resistance (reduced afterload), thereby decreasing myocardial oxygen demands. In addition, nitroglycerine causes coronary artery dilatation, thereby improving myocardial blood distribution.
NCI

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glycerylfosforylcholin

A component of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES or LECITHINS, in which the two hydroxy groups of GLYCEROL are esterified with fatty acids. (From Stedman, 26th ed) It counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
MSH

component of phosphatidylcholines (lecithins), in which the two hydroxy groups of glycerol are esterified with fatty acids; it counteracts the effects of urea on enzymes and other macromolecules.
CSP

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glycin

A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
MSH

non-essential amino acid; found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient; it is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -H.
NCI

A non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid. Glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, triggers chloride ion influx via ionotropic receptors, thereby creating an inhibitory post-synaptic potential. In contrast, this agent also acts as a co-agonist, along with glutamate, facilitating an excitatory potential at the glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Glycine is an important component and precursor for many macromolecules in the cells. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41347&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41347&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C524″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A non-essential, non-polar, non-optical, glucogenic amino acid. Glycine, an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS, triggers chloride ion influx via ionotropic receptors, thereby creating an inhibitory post-synaptic potential. In contrast, this agent also acts as a co-agonist, along with glutamate, facilitating an excitatory potential at the glutaminergic N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. Glycine is an important component and precursor for many macromolecules in the cells.
NCI

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kyselina glykochenodeoxycholová

A bile salt formed in the liver from chenodeoxycholate and glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is a cholagogue and choleretic.
MSH

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kyselina glykocholová

The glycine conjugate of CHOLIC ACID. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed.
MSH

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glykokonjugáty

Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
MSH

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kyselina glykodeoxycholová

A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
MSH

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glykogen

large branched polysaccharide consisting of glucose residues; the major carbohydrate reserve of animals, stored primarily in liver and muscle, synthesized and degraded for energy as demanded.
CSP

a kind of complex carbohydrate made of glucose, that is the major energy source for muscles
CHV

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enzymový systém rušící větvení glykogenu

1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.
MSH

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fosforylasy

A class of glucosyltransferases that catalyzes the degradation of storage polysaccharides, such as glucose polymers, by phosphorolysis in animals (GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE) and in plants (STARCH PHOSPHORYLASE).
MSH

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glykogenóza

A group of inherited metabolic disorders involving the enzymes responsible for the synthesis and degradation of glycogen. In some patients, prominent liver involvement is presented. In others, more generalized storage of glycogen occurs, sometimes with prominent cardiac involvement.
MSH

any of a group of metabolic disorders characterized by excessive storage of glycogen.
CSP

An inherited metabolic disorder characterized either by defects in glycogen synthesis or defects in the breaking down of glycogen. It results either in the creation of abnormal forms of glycogen or accumulation of glycogen in the tissues.
NCI

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glykogenóza typu I

An autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production. Accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly. Increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma. Clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
MSH

autosomal recessive disease in which gene expression of glucose-6-phosphatase is absent, resulting in hypoglycemia due to lack of glucose production; accumulation of glycogen in liver and kidney leads to organomegaly, particularly massive hepatomegaly; increased concentrations of lactic acid and hyperlipidemia appear in the plasma; clinical gout often appears in early childhood.
CSP

An autosomal recessive inherited type of glycogen storage disease. It is characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphatase, resulting in the inability of the liver to produce free glucose causing severe hypoglycemia. There is abnormal accumulation of glycogen in the liver and kidneys.
NCI

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