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kontrastová senzitivita

The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.
MSH

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kontrolní skupiny

Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
MSH

In a clinical trial, the group that does not receive the new treatment being studied. This group is compared to the group that receives the new treatment, to see if the new treatment works.
NCI

A group used as a standard of comparison in a control experiment.
NCI

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klinické zkoušky kontrolované – jako téma

Clinical trials involving one or more test treatments, at least one control treatment, specified outcome measures for evaluating the studied intervention, and a bias-free method for assigning patients to the test treatment. The treatment may be drugs, devices, or procedures studied for diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic effectiveness. Control measures include placebos, active medicines, no-treatment, dosage forms and regimens, historical comparisons, etc. When randomization using mathematical techniques, such as the use of a random numbers table, is employed to assign patients to test or control treatments, the trials are characterized as RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS AS TOPIC.
MSH

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zhmoždění

Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
MSH

mechanical injury (usually caused by a blow) resulting in hemorrhage beneath unbroken skin; a bruise.
CSP

A bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin.
NCI

Injury of the soft tissues or bone without breaking the skin, as by a blow.
NCI

A bruise is a mark on your skin caused by blood trapped under the surface. It happens when an injury crushes small blood vessels but does not break the skin. Those vessels break open and leak blood under the skin.

Bruises are often painful and swollen. You can get skin, muscle and bone bruises. Bone bruises are the most serious.

It can take months for a bruise to fade, but most last about two weeks. They start off a reddish color, and then turn bluish-purple and greenish-yellow before returning to normal. To reduce bruising, ice the injured area and elevate it above your heart. See your healthcare provider if you seem to bruise for no reason, or if the bruise appears to be infected.


MEDLINEPLUS

A finding of injury of the soft tissues or bone characterized by leakage of blood into surrounding tissues.
NCI

A bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin.
NCI

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rekonvalescence

The period of recovery following an illness.
MSH

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konvergentní pohyby očí

The turning inward of the lines of sight toward each other.
MSH

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konverze – poruchy

A disorder whose predominant feature is a loss or alteration in physical functioning that suggests a physical disorder but that is actually a direct expression of a psychological conflict or need.
MSH

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konvulzíva

Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools.
MSH

agent that causes convulsions or seizures characterized by tonic and clonic contraction of most skeletal muscles.
CSP

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křeče

the most dramatic type of seizure, characterized by tonic and clonic contraction of most skeletal muscles.
CSP

the most dramatic type of seizure
CHV

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záchvaty febrilní

Seizures that occur during a febrile episode. It is a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance has been identified in some families. The majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes). Complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period. The likelihood of developing epilepsy (i.e., a nonfebrile seizure disorder) following simple febrile seizures is low. Complex febrile seizures are associated with a moderately increased incidence of epilepsy. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p784)
MSH

seizures that occur during a fever; a common condition, affecting 2-5% of children aged 3 months to five years; majority are simple febrile seizures (generally defined as generalized onset, single seizures with a duration of less than 30 minutes); complex febrile seizures are characterized by focal onset, duration greater than 30 minutes, and/or more than one seizure in a 24 hour period.
CSP

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konvulzívní terapie

Convulsions induced in order to treat MENTAL DISORDERS. It is used primarily in the treatment of severe affective disorders and SCHIZOPHRENIA.
MSH

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Cook Islands

A group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand. (NCI)
NCI

A group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about one-half of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Coombsův test

Hemagglutination test in which Coombs` reagent (antiglobulin, or anti-human globulin rabbit immune serum) is added to detect incomplete (non-agglutinating, univalent, blocking) antibodies coating erythrocytes. The direct test is applied to red cells which have been coated with antibody in vivo (e.g., in hemolytic disease of newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and transfusion reactions). The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibody (e.g., in detection of incompatibility in cross-matching tests, detection and identification of irregular antibodies, and in detection of antibodies not identifiable by other means).
MSH

A laboratory test to identify antibodies that can bind to the surface of red blood cells or platelets and destroy them. This test is used to diagnose certain blood disorders in which patients make antibodies to their own red blood cells or platelets. It is also used to determine blood type.
NCI

Hemagglutination test in which Coombs` reagent (antiglobulin, or anti-human globulin rabbit immune serum) is added to detect incomplete (non-agglutinating, univalent, blocking) antibodies coating erythrocytes. The direct test is applied to red cells which have been coated with antibody in vivo (e.g., in hemolytic disease of newborn, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and transfusion reactions). The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibody (e.g., in detection of incompatibility in cross-matching tests, detection and identification of irregular antibodies, and in detection of antibodies not identifiable by other means). (MeSH)
NCI

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kooperační chování

The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
MSH

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coping

adaptive method of dealing with individual or environmental situations that involve psychologic or physiologic stress or threat.
CSP

The process of successfully managing difficult or challenging situations.
NCI

To adjust to new situations and overcome problems.
NCI

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měď

A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
MSH

reddish, malleable metal; atomic number, 29; atomic weight, 63.54; symbol Cu; with poisonous salts; copper is essential in nutrition, being a component of various proteins, including ceruloplasmin, erythrocuprein, cytochrome c oxidase, and tyrosinase; deficiency, which is rare, may result in hypochromic microcytic anemia, neutropenia, and bone changes; excessive accumulation in the body may lead to copper poisoning.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.
NCI

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Copper Gluconate

The orally bioavailable copper salt of D-gluconic acid. In addition to its roles as an enzyme cofactor for cytochrome C oxidase and superoxide dismutase, copper forms complexes with the thiocarbamate disulfiram (DSF) forming DSF-copper complexes, which enhances the DSF-mediated inhibition of the 26S proteasome; proteasome inhibition may result in inhibition of cellular protein degradation, cessation of cell cycle progression, inhibition of cellular proliferation, and the induction of apoptosis in susceptible tumor cell populations.
NCI

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měď – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
MSH

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Coprinus

A genus of black-spored basidiomycetous fungi of the family Coprinaceae, order Agaricales; some species are edible.
MSH

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koprofágie

Eating of excrement.
MSH

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koproporfyrinogenoxidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of coproporphyrinogen III to protoporphyrinogen IX by the conversion of two propionate groups to two vinyl groups. It is the sixth enzyme in the 8-enzyme biosynthetic pathway of HEME, and is encoded by CPO gene. Mutations of CPO gene result in HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
MSH

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koproporfyrinogeny

Porphyrinogens which are intermediates in the heme biosynthesis. They have four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Coproporphyrinogens I and III are formed in the presence of uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase from the corresponding uroporphyrinogen. They can yield coproporphyrins by autooxidation or protoporphyrin by oxidative decarboxylation.
MSH

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koproporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl and four propionic acid side chains attached to the pyrrole rings. Elevated levels of Coproporphyrin III in the urine and feces are major findings in patients with HEREDITARY COPROPORPHYRIA.
MSH

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kopulace

Sexual union of a male and a female in non-human species.
MSH

The act of sexual union between male and female, involving the transfer of sperm. [ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”]
GO

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reprografie

reproduction of data in a new location or other destination, leaving the source data unchanged, although the physical form of the result may differ from that of the source.
CSP

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autorské právo

The exclusive right, granted by law for a certain number of years, to make and dispose of copies of a literary, musical or artistic work. In the United States the copyright is granted for the life of the author plus 50 years. In the case of a joint work, it is for the life of the last joint author to die, plus 50 years. In either case the copyright runs until the end of the calendar year 50 years after the author`s death. (Random House College Dictionary, rev ed; Strong, W.S.: The Copyright Book: a Practical Guide, 1981)
MSH

A document or statement granting exclusive right to own, publish, and sell literary, musical, or artistic work, or intellectual property.
NCI

Copyright Information (e.g. copyright year, copyright holder).


HL7V3.0

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cor triatriatum

A malformation of the heart in which the embryonic common PULMONARY VEIN was not incorporated into the LEFT ATRIUM leaving behind a perforated fibromuscular membrane bisecting the left atrium, a three-atrium heart. The opening between the two left atrium sections determines the degree of obstruction to pulmonary venous return, pulmonary venous and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
MSH

A rare congenital abnormality of the heart characterized by the presence of three atria. The right or left atrium is divided into two parts by fibromuscular tissue or a membrane. It may be associated with other heart congenital abnormalities.
NCI

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cord faktory

Toxic glycolipids composed of trehalose dimycolate derivatives. They are produced by MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS and other species of MYCOBACTERIUM. They induce cellular dysfunction in animals.
MSH

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chordotomie

Any operation on the spinal cord. (Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

Spinal cord section of lateral pathways to relieve pain. This procedure may be done open or percutaneous. (from Taber`s)
NCI

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Coriolisova síla

The apparent deflection (Coriolis acceleration) of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth, attributed to a fictitious force (Coriolis force) but actually caused by the rotation of the earth. In a medical context it refers to the physiological effects (nausea, vertigo, dizziness, etc.) felt by a person moving radially in a rotating system, as a rotating space station. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
MSH

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