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dekubitus

ulceration caused by prolonged pressure in patients permitted to lie too still for a long period of time; bony prominences of the body are the most frequently affected sites; ulcer is caused by ischemia of the underlying structures of the skin, fat, and muscles as a result of the sustained and constant pressure.
CSP

Death of tissue due to external pressure.
NCI

Pressure sores are areas of damaged skin caused by staying in one position for too long. They commonly form where your bones are close to your skin, such as your ankles, back, elbows, heels and hips. You are at risk if you are bedridden, use a wheelchair, or are unable to change your position. Pressure sores can cause serious infections, some of which are life-threatening. They can be a problem for people in nursing homes.

You can prevent the sores by

  • Keeping skin clean and dry
  • Changing position every two hours
  • Using pillows and products that relieve pressure

Pressure sores have a variety of treatments. Advanced sores are slow to heal, so early treatment is best.


MEDLINEPLUS

Death of tissue due to external pressure.
NCI

An ulceration caused by prolonged pressure on the SKIN and TISSUES when one stay in one position for a long period of time, such as lying in bed. The bony areas of the body are the most frequently affected sites which become ischemic (ISCHEMIA) under sustained and constant pressure.
MSH

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odpočítatelné položky a pojistná spoluúčast

Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.
MSH

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zvěř vysoká

The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker`s Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
MSH

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DEET

A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
MSH

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defekace

The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the RECTUM.
MSH

The expulsion of feces from the rectum. [GOC:mah]
GO

The normal process of elimination of fecal material from the rectum.
NCI

A bowel movement is the last stop in the movement of food through your digestive tract. It is made of what is left after your digestive system (stomach, small intestine, and colon) absorbs nutrients and fluids from what you eat and drink. It`s also called stool or feces. Stool passes out of the body through the rectum and anus.

Sometimes a bowel movement isn`t normal. Diarrhea happens when stool passes through the large intestine too quickly. Constipation occurs when stool passes through the large intestine too slowly. Other abnormalities with bowel movements may be a sign of a digestive problem.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

The way the intestines work in terms of how often there are bowel movements, the ability to control when to have a bowel movement, and whether the stools are hard and dry as in constipation or watery as in diarrhea.
NCI

Movement of feces (undigested food, bacteria, mucus, and cells from the lining of the intestines) through the bowel and out the anus.
NCI

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viry defektní

Viruses which lack a complete genome so that they cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat. Some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack. Others, called SATELLITE VIRUSES, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
MSH

virus which lacks a complete genome so that it cannot completely replicate or cannot form a protein coat; some are host-dependent defectives, meaning they can replicate only in cell systems which provide the particular genetic function which they lack; others, called satellite viruses, are able to replicate only when their genetic defect is complemented by a helper virus.
CSP

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obranné mechanismy

Unconscious process used by an individual or a group of individuals in order to cope with impulses, feelings or ideas which are not acceptable at their conscious level; various types include reaction formation, projection and self reversal.
MSH

mental processes, usually unconscious, used by individuals to cope with impulses, feelings, or ideas which are unacceptable at the conscious level.
CSP

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defenzivní medicína

The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.
MSH

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deferoxamin

Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
MSH

natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus; it forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
CSP

An iron-chelating agent that removes iron from tumors by inhibiting DNA synthesis and causing cancer cell death. It is used in conjunction with other anticancer agents in pediatric neuroblastoma therapy.
NCI

An iron-chelating agent that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions. Deferoxamine chelates iron from intra-lysosomal ferritin and siderin forming ferrioxamine, a water-soluble chelate excreted by the kidneys and in the feces via the bile. This agent does not readily bind iron from transferrin, hemoglobin, myoglobin or cytochrome. (NCI04)
NCI

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deferoxamine mesylate

The mesylate salt of an iron-chelating agent that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions. Deferoxamine chelates iron from intra-lysosomal ferritin and siderin forming ferrioxamine, a water-soluble chelate excreted by the kidneys and in the feces via the bile. This agent does not readily bind iron from transferrin, hemoglobin, myoglobin or cytochrome. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41696&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41696&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C417″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

The mesylate salt of an iron-chelating agent that binds free iron in a stable complex, preventing it from engaging in chemical reactions. Deferoxamine chelates iron from intra-lysosomal ferritin and ferrioxamine, a water-soluble complex excreted by the kidneys and in the feces via the bile. This agent does not readily chelate iron bound to transferrin, hemoglobin, myoglobin or cytochrome.
NCI

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Deficiency

In medicine, a shortage of a substance (such as a vitamin or mineral) needed by the body.
NCI

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karenční nemoci

A condition produced by dietary or metabolic deficiency. The term includes all diseases caused by an insufficient supply of essential nutrients, i.e., protein (or amino acids), vitamins, and minerals. It also includes an inadequacy of calories. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

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defolianty chemické

Herbicides that remove leaves from trees and growing plants. They may be either organic or inorganic. Several of the more persistent types have been used in military operations and many are toxic. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
MSH

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polykání

The act of taking solids and liquids into the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT through the mouth and throat.
MSH

The act of passing something through the mouth and throat into the stomach.
NCI

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poruchy polykání

Difficulty in SWALLOWING which may result from neuromuscular disorder or mechanical obstruction. Dysphagia is classified into two distinct types: oropharyngeal dysphagia due to malfunction of the PHARYNX and UPPER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER; and esophageal dysphagia due to malfunction of the ESOPHAGUS.
MSH

Difficulty swallowing.
NCI

difficulty in swallowing.
CSP

If you have a swallowing disorder, you may have difficulty swallowing and may also have pain while swallowing. Some people may be completely unable to swallow or may have trouble swallowing liquids, foods or saliva. This makes it hard to eat. Often, it can be difficult to take in enough calories and fluids to nourish your body.

Anyone can have a swallowing disorder, but it is more likely in the elderly. Swallowing problems often happen because of other conditions, including

  • Nervous system disorders, such as Parkinson`s disease and cerebral palsy
  • Problems with your esophagus, including gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)
  • Stroke
  • Head or spinal cord injury
  • Cancer of the head, neck, or esophagus

Medicines can help some people, while others may need surgery. Swallowing treatment with a speech-language pathologist can help. You may find it helpful to change your diet or hold your head or neck in a certain way when you eat. In very serious cases, people may need feeding tubes.

NIH: National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by difficulty in swallowing.
NCI

A symptom referring to difficulty in swallowing. It may be observed in patients with stroke, motor neuron disorders, cancer of the throat or mouth, head and neck injuries, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis.
NCI

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DESHIDRATAZIOA

The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
MSH

condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
CSP

A condition caused by the loss of too much water from the body. Severe diarrhea or vomiting can cause dehydration.
NCI

A disorder characterized by excessive loss of water from the body. It is usually caused by severe diarrhea, vomiting or diaphoresis.
NCI

A condition resulting from the excessive loss of water from the body. It is usually caused by severe diarrhea, vomiting or diaphoresis.
NCI

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dehydroaskorbatasa

Catalyzes the hydrolysis of the gamma lactone, dehydroascorbate, to diketogulonate.
MSH

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kyselina dehydroaskorbová

The reversibly oxidized form of ascorbic acid. It is the lactone of 2,3-DIKETOGULONIC ACID and has antiscorbutic activity in man on oral ingestion.
MSH

The oxidized form of ascorbic acid; it can be readily reduced to ascorbic acid in vivo.
NCI

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dehydrocholesteroly

Cholesterol derivatives having an additional double bond in any position. 24-Dehydrocholesterol is DESMOSTEROL. The other most prevalent dehydrocholesterol is the 7-isomer. This compound is a precursor of cholesterol and of vitamin D3.
MSH

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kyselina dehydrocholová

A semisynthetic bile acid made from cholic acid. It is used as a cholagogue, hydrocholeretic, diuretic, and as a diagnostic aid.
MSH

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dehydroemetine

A synthetic derivative of emetine; used in the treatment of intestinal amoebiasis. (On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

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dehydroepiandrosteron

major C19 steroid produced by the adrenal cortex; also produced in small quantities in the testis and the ovary; dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to testosterone; androstenedione; estradiol; and estrone; most of DHEA is sulfated (dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate) before secretion.
CSP

A substance being studied in the prevention of cancer. It is a type of steroid.
NCI

A synthetic form of dehydroepiandrosterone with potential chemopreventive activity. Produced endogenously, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an intermediate in the conversion of cholesterol to androgens and estrogens. Although the mechanisms of action of exogenously administered DHEA have not been fully illuminated, they may result in both direct and indirect physiologic effects. Direct effects include GABA-a receptor complex and NMDA receptor modulation, and enhanced pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion and antiglucocorticoid activities. (NCI04)
NCI

steroid drug being studied as a cancer preventive drug
CHV

A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
MSH

A synthetic form of dehydroepiandrosterone with potential chemopreventive activity. Produced endogenously, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an intermediate in the conversion of cholesterol to androgens and estrogens. Although the mechanisms of action of exogenously administered DHEA have not been fully illuminated, they may result in both direct and indirect physiologic effects. Direct effects include GABA-a receptor complex and NMDA receptor modulation, and enhanced pancreatic beta cell insulin secretion and antiglucocorticoid activities. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42419&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42419&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2265″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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deinstitucionalizace

The practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual`s family, the community, and the health care system.
MSH

practice of caring for individuals in the community, rather than in an institutional environment with resultant effects on the individual, the individual`s family, the community, and the health care system.
CSP

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nucleus vestibularis lateralis

Vestibular nucleus lying immediately superior to the inferior vestibular nucleus and composed of large multipolar nerve cells. Its upper end becomes continuous with the superior vestibular nucleus. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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déja vu

A subjective feeling that an experience which is occurring for the first time has been experienced before.
MSH

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Delaware

A state in the mid-atlantic United States. Its capital is Dover.
NCI

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léky s prodlouženým účinkem

dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
CSP

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delirium

A disorder characterized by CONFUSION; inattentiveness; disorientation; ILLUSIONS; HALLUCINATIONS; agitation; and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity. It may result from toxic/metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp411-2)
MSH

disorder characterized by confusion, inattentiveness, disorientation, illusions, hallucinations, agitation and in some instances autonomic nervous system overactivity; may result from toxic or metabolic conditions or structural brain lesions; condition may also be acute and reversible.
CSP

A disorder characterized by the acute and sudden development of confusion, illusions, movement changes, inattentiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. Usually, it is a reversible condition.
NCI

Delirium is a condition which causes a confused mental state and changes in behavior. Besides falling in and out of consciousness, there may be problems with

  • Attention and awareness
  • Thinking and memory
  • Emotion
  • Muscle control
  • Sleeping and waking

Causes of delirium include medications, poisoning, serious illnesses or infections, and severe pain. It can also be part of some mental illnesses or dementia. Delirium and dementia have similar symptoms, so it can be hard to tell them apart. They can also occur together.

Delirium tremens is a serious type of alcohol withdrawal syndrome. It usually happens to people who stop drinking after years of alcohol abuse.

People with delirium often, though not always, make a full recovery after their underlying illness is treated.


MEDLINEPLUS

A mental state in which a person is confused, disoriented, and not able to think or remember clearly. The person may also be agitated and have hallucinations, and extreme excitement.
NCI

A usually reversible condition characterized by the acute and sudden development of confusion, illusions, movement changes, inattentiveness, agitation, and hallucinations. Causes include drug abuse, poisoning, infectious processes, and fluid and electrolyte imbalance.
NCI

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porod – vypuzení plodu a placenty

Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
MSH

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poskytování zdravotní péče

The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
MSH

The provision of medical care.
NCI

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