Additional pages

glycylglycin

The simplest of all peptides. It functions as a gamma-glutamyl acceptor.
MSH

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kyselina glycyrhetinová

An oleanolic acid from GLYCYRRHIZA that has some antiallergic, antibacterial, and antiviral properties. It is used topically for allergic or infectious skin inflammation and orally for its aldosterone effects in electrolyte regulation.
MSH

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Glycyrrhiza

A genus of leguminous herbs or shrubs whose roots yield GLYCYRRHETINIC ACID and its derivatives, CARBENOXOLONE for example. Licorice toxicity is manifested as hypokalemia, low blood potassium. Licorice is used as flavoring and aromatic in pharmaceuticals and as candy.
MSH

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glyoxal

yellow crystalline compound prepared by the oxidation of acetaldehyde.
CSP

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Gnathostoma

A genus of parasitic nematodes that occurs in mammals including man. Infection in humans is either by larvae penetrating the skin or by ingestion of uncooked fish.
MSH

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gnathostomóza

Infections with nematodes of the genus GNATHOSTOMA, superfamily THELAZIOIDEA. Gnathostomiasis is a food-borne zoonosis caused by eating undercooked or raw fish or meat.
MSH

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cíle

The end-result or objective, which may be specified or required in advance.
MSH

A goal or aim to be accomplished or attained.
NCI

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kozy – nemoci

Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.
MSH

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BOZIOA,TIROTOSIKOSI GABEKO NODULO TIROIDEA

Enlargement of the THYROID GLAND that may increase from about 20 grams to hundreds of grams in human adults. Goiter is observed in individuals with normal thyroid function (euthyroidism), thyroid deficiency (HYPOTHYROIDISM), or hormone overproduction (HYPERTHYROIDISM). Goiter may be congenital or acquired, sporadic or endemic (GOITER, ENDEMIC).
MSH

enlargement of the thyroid gland.
CSP

An enlarged thyroid. It may be caused by too little iodine in the diet or by other conditions. Most goiters are not cancer.
NCI

Enlargement of the thyroid gland usually caused by lack of iodine in the diet, hyperthyroidism, or thyroid nodules. Symptoms include difficulty in breathing and swallowing.
NCI

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struma endemická

A form of IODINE deficiency disorders characterized by an enlargement of the THYROID GLAND in a significantly large fraction of a POPULATION GROUP. Endemic goiter is common in mountainous and iodine-deficient areas of the world where the DIET contains insufficient amount of iodine.
MSH

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struma uzlová

An enlarged THYROID GLAND containing multiple nodules (THYROID NODULE), usually resulting from recurrent thyroid HYPERPLASIA and involution over many years to produce the irregular enlargement. Multinodular goiters may be nontoxic or may induce THYROTOXICOSIS.
MSH

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struma substernální

An enlarged THYROID GLAND with at least 50% of the gland situated behind the STERNUM. It is an unusual presentation of an intrathoracic goiter. Substernal goiters frequently cause compression on the TRACHEA leading to deviation, narrowing, and respiratory symptoms.
MSH

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zlato

A yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197. It is used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration. Many of its clinical applications, such as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS, are in the form of its salts.
MSH

yellow metallic element with the atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197; used in jewelry, goldplating of other metals, as currency, and in dental restoration; many of its clinical applications are in the form of its salts.
CSP

An element with atomic symbol Au, atomic number 79, and atomic weight 197.
NCI

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zlato – slitiny

Alloys that contain a high percentage of gold. They are used in restorative or prosthetic dentistry.
MSH

Gold-based alloys and precious metal alloys for clinical use are mixtures of metals, the major components of which are gold, silver, or palladium. They also may contain a small quantity of copper or platinum. The device is intended to fabricate dental appliances, such as crowns and bridges, for patients.
SPN

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zlato koloidní radioaktivní

A suspension of radioactive gold particles emitting negative beta particles and gamma irradiation. It was formerly used for liver scans and irradiation treatment of some metastatic malignancies.
MSH

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zlato – isotopy

Stable gold atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gold, but differ in atomic weight. Au-197 is a stable isotope.
MSH

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zlato – radioisotopy

Unstable isotopes of gold that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Au 185-196, 198-201, and 203 are radioactive gold isotopes.
MSH

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aurothioglukosa

A thioglucose derivative used as an antirheumatic and experimentally to produce obesity in animals.
MSH

monovalent gold salt sometimes used in treatment of early active rheumatoid arthritis.
CSP

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aurothiomalát

A variable mixture of the mono- and disodium salts of gold thiomalic acid used mainly for its anti-inflammatory action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. It is most effective in active progressive rheumatoid arthritis and of little or no value in the presence of extensive deformities or in the treatment of other forms of arthritis.
MSH

The sodium salt of gold thiomalic acid, an organogold compound with antirheumatic and potential antineoplastic activities. Gold sodium thiomalate (GST) appears to inhibit the activity of atypical protein kinase C iota (PKCiota) by forming a cysteinyl-aurothiomalate adduct with the cysteine residue Cys-69 within the PB1 binding domain of PKCiota. This prevents the binding of Par6 (Partitioning defective protein 6) to PKCiota, thereby inhibiting PKCiota-mediated oncogenic signaling, which may result in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, the promotion of tumor cell differentiation, and the induction of tumor cell apoptosis. Atypical PKCiota, a serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in numerous cancer cell types, plays an important role in cancer proliferation, invasion, and survival; Par6 is a scaffold protein that facilitates atypical PKC-mediated phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins involved in epithelial and neuronal cell polarization.
NCI

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Goldblatt-hypertensie

HYPERTENSION due to renal ISCHEMIA. In 1934, Harry Goldblatt described that hypertension can be produced experimentally by using a clamp to obstruct blood flow to one kidney, the Goldblatt phenomenon.
MSH

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karas stříbřitý

Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).
MSH

small usually golden yellow or orange cyprinid fish (Carassius auratus) often kept as an aquarium and pond fish.
CSP

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golf

A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.
MSH

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Golgiho aparát

A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
MSH

stack of flattened intracellular vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes or the cell membrane; the movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus.
CSP

A compound membranous cytoplasmic organelle of eukaryotic cells, consisting of flattened, ribosome-free vesicles arranged in a more or less regular stack. The Golgi apparatus differs from the endoplasmic reticulum in often having slightly thicker membranes, appearing in sections as a characteristic shallow semicircle so that the convex side (cis or entry face) abuts the endoplasmic reticulum, secretory vesicles emerging from the concave side (trans or exit face). In vertebrate cells there is usually one such organelle, while in invertebrates and plants, where they are known usually as dictyosomes, there may be several scattered in the cytoplasm. The Golgi apparatus processes proteins produced on the ribosomes of the rough endoplasmic reticulum; such processing includes modification of the core oligosaccharides of glycoproteins, and the sorting and packaging of proteins for transport to a variety of cellular locations. Three different regions of the Golgi are now recognized both in terms of structure and function: cis, in the vicinity of the cis face, trans, in the vicinity of the trans face, and medial, lying between the cis and trans regions. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

A stack of flattened vesicles located between the nucleus and the secretory pole or surface of a cell. Functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough endoplasmic reticulum and directing them to secretory vesicles, lysosomes, or the cell membrane. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or golgi apparatus and fuse with the golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane.
NCI

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Golgiho-Mazzoniho tělíska

Thin capsules enveloping end nerve fibrils in the subcutaneous tissue of fingers.
MSH

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gonády – poruchy

Pathological processes of the OVARIES or the TESTES.
MSH

condition in which there is a deviation from or interruption of the normal structure or function of the gamete producing organs; specific gonad disorders available.
CSP

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gonády – dysgeneze

A number of syndromes with defective gonadal developments such as streak GONADS and dysgenetic testes or ovaries. The spectrum of gonadal and sexual abnormalities is reflected in their varied sex chromosome (SEX CHROMOSOMES) constitution as shown by the karyotypes of 45,X monosomy (TURNER SYNDROME); 46,XX (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46XX); 46,XY (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, 46,XY); and sex chromosome MOSAICISM; (GONADAL DYSGENESIS, MIXED). Their phenotypes range from female, through ambiguous, to male. This concept includes gonadal agenesis.
MSH

Abnormal development of a gonad (ovary or testicle). Men with gonadal dysgenesis have a greater risk of developing testicular cancer. Gonadal dysgenesis is usually part of a genetic syndrome.
NCI

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gonády – dysgeneze, 46,XY

Defects in the SEX DETERMINATION PROCESS in 46, XY individuals that result in abnormal gonadal development and deficiencies in TESTOSTERONE and subsequently ANTIMULLERIAN HORMONE or other factors required for normal male sex development. This leads to the development of female phenotypes (male to female sex reversal), normal to tall stature, and bilateral streak or dysgenic gonads which are susceptible to GONADAL TISSUE NEOPLASMS. An XY gonadal dysgenesis is associated with structural abnormalities on the Y CHROMOSOME, a mutation in the GENE, SRY, or a mutation in other autosomal genes that are involved in sex determination.
MSH

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gonády – dysgeneze smíšená

A type of defective gonadal development in patients with a wide spectrum of chromosomal mosaic variants. Their karyotypes are of partial sex chromosome monosomy resulting from an absence or an abnormal second sex chromosome (X or Y). Karyotypes include 45,X/46,XX; 45,X/46,XX/47,XXX; 46,XXp-; 45,X/46,XY; 45,X/47,XYY; 46,XYpi; etc. The spectrum of phenotypes may range from phenotypic female to phenotypic male including variations in gonads and internal and external genitalia, depending on the ratio in each gonad of 45,X primordial germ cells to those with normal 46,XX or 46,XY constitution.
MSH

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gonadotropiny

Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
MSH

any pituitary or placental hormone that stimulates the gonads; major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis or the placenta.
CSP

Heterodimeric glycoprotein Gonadotropin consists of alpha (common)/beta (unique) protein subunits. The alpha subunit is present in other heterodimeric glycoprotein hormones. The beta subunit confers biological specificity and stimulates ovarian synthesis of steroids (progesterone) to maintain pregnancy.
NCI

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choriogonadotropin

A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
MSH

gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the placenta; similar to the pituitary luteinizing hormone in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the corpus luteum during pregnancy.
CSP

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