Additional pages

dibutyryl cyklický GMP

N-(1-Oxobutyl)-cyclic 3`,5`-(hydrogen phosphate)-2`-butanoate guanosine. A derivative of cyclic GMP. It has a higher resistance to extracellular and intracellular phosphodiesterase than cyclic GMP.
MSH

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dikamba

A chlorinated organic herbicide.
MSH

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dikarbethoxydihydrokolidin

1,4-Dihydro-2,4,6-trimethyl-3,5-pyridinedicarboxylic acid diethyl ester.
MSH

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dichloracetát

An acetic acid derivative that is a metabolite of TRICHLOROETHYLENE and is formed during chlorine disinfection of drinking water. It has effects on GLUCOSE metabolism, lowers LACTATE, and activates the PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX.
MSH

derivative of acetic acid which increases the activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase and rate of lipogenesis; it is used in organic synthesis, pharmaceuticals, and medicine.
CSP

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dichlorethyleny

Toxic chlorinated unsaturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. Both isomers are toxic, but 1,1-dichloroethylene is the more potent CNS depressant and hepatotoxin. It is used in the manufacture of thermoplastic polymers.
MSH

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dichlormethylendifosfonát

A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits bone resorption and soft tissue calcification.
MSH

A first-generation bisphosphonate with anti-resorptive and anti-hypercalcemic activities. Clodronic acid adsorbs onto the surface of the hydroxyapatite crystals in bone matrix. Although the exact mechanism through which clodronic acid exerts its cytotoxic effect on osteoclasts has yet to be fully elucidated, this agent is metabolized intracellularly to a toxic beta-gamma-methylene analog of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), AppCCl2p. The ATP analog AppCCl2p competitively inhibits ADP/ATP translocase, thereby interfering with mitochondrial membrane potential and cellular energy metabolism. This may cause osteoclast apoptosis and, eventually, inhibiting osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.
NCI

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dichlorofen

Nontoxic laxative vermicide effective for taenia infestation. It tends to produce colic and nausea. It is also used as a veterinary fungicide, anthelmintic, and antiprotozoan. (From Merck, 11th ed.)
MSH

A nontoxic laxative vermicide of chlorinated phenol compound. Dichlorophen is used as a veterinary fungicide, anthelmintic, and anti-protozoan, as well as an ingredient in antimicrobial soaps and shampoos. This agent probably acts by increasing the clearing of intestinal contents, thereby eradicating tapeworm infections from the intestines.
NCI

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dichlororibofuranosylbenzimidazol

An RNA polymerase II transcriptional inhibitor. This compound terminates transcription prematurely by selective inhibition of RNA synthesis. It is used in research to study underlying mechanisms of cellular regulation.
MSH

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dichlorfenamid

A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of glaucoma.
MSH

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dichlorvos

An organophosphorus insecticide that inhibits acetylcholinesterase.
MSH

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dichotické slyšení – testy

Tests for central hearing disorders based on the competing message technique (binaural separation).
MSH

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diklofenak

A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) with antipyretic and analgesic actions. It is primarily available as the sodium salt.
MSH

A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent
CHV

The active ingredient in a drug that is used to treat the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and is being studied in the prevention and treatment of some types of skin cancer. It blocks substances that cause inflammation and pain. It may also prevent the growth of new blood vessels that tumors need to grow. It is a type of cyclooxygenase inhibitor, a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and a type of antiangiogenesis agent.
NCI

A nonsteroidal benzeneacetic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory activity. As a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), diclofenac binds and chelates both isoforms of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and-2), thereby blocking the conversion of arachidonic acid to pro-inflammatory-proprostaglandins. This agent also may inhibit COX-2-mediated tumor angiogenesis. When inhibiting COX-2, diclofenac may be effective in relieving pain and inflammation; when inhibiting COX-1, it may produce unacceptable gastrointestinal side effects. This agent may be more active against COX-2 than several other carboxylic acid-containing NSAIDs. (NCI04)
NCI

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dikloxacilin

One of the PENICILLINS which is resistant to PENICILLINASE.
MSH

A broad-spectrum, semi-synthetic, beta-lactam, penicillin antibiotic with bactericidal and beta-lactamase resistant activity. Dicloxacillin binds to penicillin binding proteins (PBP) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. It also inhibits the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan, a critical component of bacterial cell walls. This leads to the inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis and eventually causes cell lysis.
NCI

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dikofol

An organochlorine insecticide.
MSH

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dikroceliáza

Infection with flukes of the genus Dicrocoelium.
MSH

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Dicrocoeliidae

A family of flattened, translucent flukes (TREMATODA) occurring in the gut, gallbladder, bile ducts, liver or pancreatic ducts of amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. (Noble et al., Parasitology: the Biology of Animal Parasites, 6th ed, p188)
MSH

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Dicrocoelium

A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Dicrocoeliidae which includes the species dendriticum and hospes. It occurs in the biliary passages or liver of many vertebrates including man. The intermediate hosts are mainly mollusks but occasionally ants.
MSH

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slovníky jako téma

Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
MSH

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Dictyocaulus

Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.
MSH

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Dictyocaulus – infekce

Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.
MSH

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Dictyostelium

genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus; its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria; often called cellular slime mold; D. discoideum is the best known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
CSP

A genus of protozoa, formerly also considered a fungus. Its natural habitat is decaying forest leaves, where it feeds on bacteria. D. discoideum is the best-known species and is widely used in biomedical research.
MSH

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dicyklohexylkarbodiimid

A carbodiimide that is used as a chemical intermediate and coupling agent in peptide synthesis. (From Hawley`s Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)
MSH

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dicyklomin

A muscarinic antagonist used as an antispasmodic and in urinary incontinence. It has little effect on glandular secretion or the cardiovascular system. It does have some local anesthetic properties and is used in gastrointestinal, biliary, and urinary tract spasms.
MSH

A carboxylic acid derivative and a selective anticholinergic with antispasmodic activity. Dicyclomine blocks acetylcholine from binding to muscarinic receptors on smooth muscle. This agent has a direct relaxing effect on smooth muscle and therefore prevents spasms in the muscles of the gastrointestinal tract, inhibits gastrointestinal propulsive motility, decreases gastric acid secretion and controls excessive pharyngeal, tracheal and bronchial secretion.
NCI

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dideoxyadenosin

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3`-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is an inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal side effect is nephrotoxicity. In vivo, dideoxyadenosine is rapidly metabolized to DIDANOSINE (ddI) by enzymatic deamination; ddI is then converted to dideoxyinosine monophosphate and ultimately to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, the putative active metabolite.
MSH

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3` hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40799&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40799&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C429″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine and a prodrug of didanosine in which the 3` hydroxyl group on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. Dideoxyadenosine competitively inhibits adenylyl cyclase, thereby reducing levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). By inhibiting cAMP-mediated gene activation in tumor cells, this agent may retard tumor cell proliferation. (NCI04)
NCI

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dideoxycytidin

cytidine analog which inhibits reverse transcriptase and has potential efficacy against AIDS.
CSP

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3`-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
MSH

A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zalcitabine preferentially inhibits the gamma form of DNA polymerase present in tumor cell mitochondria, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell mitochondrial DNA replication and tumor cell death. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40349&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40349&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C430″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic dideoxynucleoside. After intracellular phosphorylation to its active metabolite, zalcitabine preferentially inhibits the gamma form of DNA polymerase present in tumor cell mitochondria, resulting in the inhibition of tumor cell mitochondrial DNA replication and tumor cell death. (NCI04)
NCI

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dideoxyinosin

A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3`-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
MSH

inosine nucleoside analog; antiHIV agent.
CSP

A drug used to treat infection caused by viruses.
NCI

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine in which the 3` hydroxyl on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. In vivo, didanosine is converted to the active triphosphate form, which is incorporated into DNA. The absence of the 3` hydroxyl inhibits DNA elongation because phosphodiester bonds cannot be made with the substituted hydrogen. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=37814&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=37814&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C431″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic nucleoside analogue of deoxyadenosine in which the 3` hydroxyl on the ribose moiety is replaced by a hydrogen atom. In vivo, didanosine is converted to the active triphosphate form, which is incorporated into DNA. The absence of the 3` hydroxyl inhibits DNA elongation because phosphodiester bonds cannot be made with the substituted hydrogen.
NCI

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dideoxynukleosidy

Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5`-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
MSH

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dieldrin

An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
MSH

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diencefalon

The paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the THALAMUS; HYPOTHALAMUS; EPITHALAMUS; and SUBTHALAMUS are derived.
MSH

caudal part of the prosencephalon composed of the epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus.
CSP

Organ component of neuraxis that has as its parts the epithalamus, thalamus, hypothalamus, subthalamus. There is only one diencephalon.
FMA

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dienestrol

A synthetic, non-steroidal estrogen structurally related to stilbestrol. It is used, usually as the cream, in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal symptoms.
MSH

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