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Dientamoeba

A genus of minute EUKARYOTES that are characterized by the preponderance of binucleate over uninucleate forms, the presence of several distinct granules in the karyosome, and the lack of a cystic stage. It is parasitic in the large intestine of humans and certain monkeys.
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dientamébiáza

Gastrointestinal infection with organisms of the genus DIENTAMOEBA.
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diestrus

A phase of the ESTROUS CYCLES that follows METESTRUS. Diestrus is a period of sexual quiescence separating phases of ESTRUS in polyestrous animals.
MSH

The estrous cycle phase which is a period of sexual quiescence and represents the phase of the mature corpus luteum. [GOC:dph, ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”]
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dieta

Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
MSH

usual food and drink consumed by an individual; for indexing what is medically prescribed to treat a condition use DIET THERAPY.
CSP

The things a person eats and drinks.
NCI

Your diet is made up of what you eat. There are many different types of diets. A healthy diet

  • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products.
  • May include lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs and nuts.
  • Is low in saturated fats, trans fat, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars.

There are many different types of diets. Some, like a vegetarian diet, don`t include meats. Others, like the Mediterranean diet, describe a pattern of eating with an emphasis on less saturated fat than most Americans eat.

Many people follow specific diets to lose weight. Some of these diets are fad or crash diets that severely restrict calories or the types of food you are allowed to eat. These diets rarely lead to permanent weight loss and often don`t provide all of the nutrients your body needs. To lose weight, you need to use more calories than you eat. Portion control is the key. When trying to lose weight, you can still eat your favorite foods — as long as you pay attention to the total number of calories that you eat.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

The customary allowance of food and drink taken by a person or an animal from day to day, particularly one especially planned to meet specific requirements of the individual, including or excluding certain items of food; a prescribed course of eating and drinking in which the amount and kind of food, as well as the times at which it is to be taken, are regulated for therapeutic purposes or selected with reference to a particular state of health.
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dietní záliby

Diets which become fashionable, but which are not necessarily nutritious.(Lehninger 1982, page 484)
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dietní záznamy

Records of nutrient intake over a specific period of time, usually kept by the patient.
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dieta – přehledy

Systematic collections of factual data pertaining to the diet of a human population within a given geographic area.
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dietoterapie

By adjusting the quantity and quality of food intake to improve health status of an individual. This term does not include the methods of food intake (NUTRITIONAL SUPPORT).
MSH

nutrients in the form of supplements or replacements are added or are used in place of other dietary constituents; also applies when a particular diet is used in the prevention and/or treatment of a disease including nutritional or non-nutritional disorders.
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nutritional management

Used with disease headings for dietary and nutritional management of the disease. The concept does not include vitamin or mineral supplements, for which “drug therapy” may be used.
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dieta aterogenní

A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
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dieta kariogenní

A diet that contributes to the development and advancement of DENTAL CARIES.
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dieta makrobiotická

An approach to nutrition based on whole cereal grains, beans, cooked vegetables and the Chinese YIN-YANG principle. It advocates a diet consisting of organic and locally grown foods, seasonal vegetables, complex carbohydrates, and fewer fats, sugars, and chemically processed foods.
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redukční dieta

A diet designed to cause an individual to lose weight.
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dieta s nízkým obsahem soli

A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

diet low in sodium.
CSP

A diet low in sodium for patients with congestive heart failure and/or renal failure.


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dietní sacharidy

Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)
MSH

carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers; the former are the major source of energy; the sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes, tubers, etc.
CSP

A class of macronutrients constructed from carbon, oxygen and hydrogen that have the general formula Cn(H2O)m.
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dietní tuky

Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.
MSH

lipids present in food.
CSP

A chemically heterogeneous group of organic compounds found in food that are insoluble in water but soluble in nonpolar solvents.
NCI

Fat is a major source of energy and aids your body in absorbing vitamins. It`s important for proper growth, development and keeping you healthy. Fat provides taste to foods and helps you feel full. Fats are an especially important source of calories and nutrients for infants and toddlers. Dietary fat also plays a major role in your cholesterol levels.

But not all fats are the same. You should try to avoid

  • Saturated fats such as butter, solid shortening, lard and fatback
  • Trans fats, found in vegetable shortenings, some margarines, crackers, cookies, snack foods and other foods made with or fried in partially hydrogenated oils

Try to replace them with oils such as corn, canola, olive, safflower, soybean and sunflower. Of course, eating too much fat will put on the pounds.

Food and Drug Administration


MEDLINEPLUS

A class of food constituents, also known as fats and oils, that serve as a source of energy and essential fatty acids in animals. The major components of lipids are fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids, glycolipids, sphingolipids, steroids (cholesterol), and lipoproteins.
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dietní tuky nenasycené

Unsaturated fats or oils used in foods or as a food.
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dietní vláknina

The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
MSH

remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man; comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.
CSP

Compounds in food which are not digested by the digestive processes in the human stomach or small intestine.
NCI

Fiber is a substance in plants. Dietary fiber is the kind you eat. It is in fruits, vegetables and grains. It is the part of the plant that your body can`t digest. Yet it is an important part of a healthy diet. It adds bulk to your diet and makes you feel full faster, helping you control your weight. Fiber helps digestion and helps prevent constipation.

You can get fiber from whole grains, beans, nuts, fruits and vegetables. You should add fiber to your diet slowly. Increasing dietary fiber too quickly can lead to gas, bloating and cramps.


MEDLINEPLUS

In food, fiber is the part of fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains that cannot be digested. The fiber in food may help prevent cancer. In the body, fiber refers to tissue made of long threadlike cells, such as muscle fiber or nerve fiber.
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dietní proteiny

Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.
MSH

proteins obtained from foods; they are the main source of the essential amino acids.
CSP

A macronutrient which forms the major structural components of all the cells of the body. They can function as enzymes, membrane carriers, and hormones.
NCI

Protein is in every living cell in the body. Our bodies need protein from the foods we eat to build and maintain bones, muscles and skin. We get proteins in our diet from meat, dairy products, nuts and certain grains and beans. Proteins from meat and other animal products are complete proteins. This means they supply all of the amino acids the body can`t make on its own. Plant proteins are incomplete. You must combine them to get all of the amino acids your body needs.

It is important to get enough dietary protein. You need to eat protein every day, because your body doesn`t store it the way it stores fats or carbohydrates. The average person needs 50 to 65 grams of protein each day. This is the amount in four ounces of meat plus a cup of cottage cheese.


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dietetické služby

Services provided by dietitians or nutritionists to meet the nutritional needs of individuals, including consultation with other professional personnel.
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dietetika

The application of nutritional principles to regulation of the diet and feeding persons or groups of persons.
MSH

science or art of applying the principles of nutrition to the diet.
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diethylpyrokarbonát

Preservative for wines, soft drinks, and fruit juices and a gentle esterifying agent.
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diethylkarbamazin

An anthelmintic used primarily as the citrate in the treatment of filariasis, particularly infestations with Wucheria bancrofti or Loa loa.
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diethyldithiokarbamát

A chelating agent that has been used to mobilize toxic metals from the tissues of man and experimental animals. It is the main metabolite of DISULFIRAM.
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diethylhexylftalát

An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
MSH

listed as a plasticizer by USP and MeSH.
CSP

A colorless, oily organic carcinogen with a slight odor. Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate is mainly used as a plasticizer for fabricating flexible materials for many household products. Inhalation, digestion, and dermal contact are the primary routes of potential exposure, which was linked to increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in animals. This substance is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
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diethylnitrosamin

A nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
MSH

nitrosamine derivative with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
CSP

A synthetic light-sensitive, volatile, clear yellow oil that is soluble in water, lipids, and other organic solvents. It is used as gasoline and lubricant additive, antioxidant, and stabilizer for industry materials. When heated to decomposition, N-nitrosodiethylamine emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides. N-Nitrosodiethylamine affects DNA integrity, probably by alkylation, and is used in experimental research to induce liver tumorigenesis. It is considered to be reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
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diethylpropion

A appetite depressant considered to produce less central nervous system disturbance than most drugs in this therapeutic category. It is also considered to be among the safest for patients with hypertension. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2290)
MSH

An amphetamine derivative and a sympathomimetic stimulant with anti-obesity and appetite-suppressant properties. Diethylpropion stimulates neurons to release and maintain high levels of catecholamines including dopamine and norepinephrine resulting in a suppression of hunger signals and appetite. This agent may also indirectly affect leptin-neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurotransmission, which exerts control on metabolic processes such as food intake and body weight homeostasis. Via elevated catecholamine, diethylpropion indirectly elevates leptin levels in the brain, which in turn inhibits production of NPY, a potent stimulator of feeding behavior, thereby preventing the initiation of eating, increasing energy expenditure, and decreasing fat storage.
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diethylstilbestrol

A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
MSH

synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal, postmenopausal, and other disorders sensitive to estrogens; an epigenetic carcinogen.
CSP

A synthetic form of the hormone estrogen that was prescribed to pregnant women between about 1940 and 1971 because it was thought to prevent miscarriages. Diethylstilbestrol may increase the risk of uterine, ovarian, or breast cancer in women who took it. It also has been linked to an increased risk of clear cell carcinoma of the vagina or cervix in daughters exposed to diethylstilbestrol before birth.
NCI

DES; the acronym for diethylstilbestrol, a synthetic, nonsteroidal form of estrogen. A well-known teratogen and carcinogen, DES inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thereby blocking the testicular synthesis of testosterone, lowering plasma testosterone, and inducing a chemical castration. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43081&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=43081&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C433″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic, nonsteroidal form of estrogen. A well-known teratogen and carcinogen, diethylstilbestrol inhibits the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, thereby blocking the testicular synthesis of testosterone, lowering plasma testosterone, and inducing a chemical castration.
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diferenciální termální analýza

Technique by which phase transitions of chemical reactions can be followed by observation of the heat absorbed or liberated.
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diferenční práh

The smallest difference which can be discriminated between two stimuli or one which is barely above the threshold.
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