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ezofágus – stenóza

A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.
MSH

A disorder characterized by a narrowing of the lumen of the esophagus.
NCI

Narrowing of the lumen of the esophagus.
NCI

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ezofageální varixy

longitudinal venous varices at the lower end of the esophagus as a result of portal hypertension; they are superficial and liable to ulceration and massive bleeding.
CSP

Abnormally dilated vein(s) of the esophagus.
NCI

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ezofagitida

INFLAMMATION, acute or chronic, of the ESOPHAGUS caused by BACTERIA, chemicals, or TRAUMA.
MSH

Inflammation of the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach).
NCI

A disorder characterized by inflammation of the esophageal wall.
NCI

An acute or chronic inflammatory process affecting the esophageal wall.
NCI

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peptická ezofagitida

INFLAMMATION of the ESOPHAGUS that is caused by the reflux of GASTRIC JUICE with contents of the STOMACH and DUODENUM.
MSH

inflammation of the esophagus caused by the reflux of gastric juice with contents of the stomach and duodenum.
CSP

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ezofágogastrické spojení

The area covering the terminal portion of ESOPHAGUS and the beginning of STOMACH at the cardiac orifice.
MSH

site of transition from the stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus to the simple columnar epithelium of the cardia of the stomach.
CSP

The anatomical location where the esophagus joins to the stomach. (NCI)
NCI

The place where the esophagus is connected to the stomach.
NCI

The anatomical location where the esophagus joins to the stomach.
NCI

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ezofágoplastika

A plastic operation on the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

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ezofágoskopie

Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the esophagus.
MSH

Examination of the esophagus using an esophagoscope. An esophagoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument with a light and a lens for viewing. It may also have a tool to remove tissue to be checked under a microscope for signs of disease.
NCI

Endoscopic examination of the esophagus.
NCI

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ezofágostomie

Surgical formation of an external opening (stoma) into the esophagus.
MSH

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ezofágus

The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
MSH

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous proximally with the pharynx and distally with the stomach. Examples: There is only one esophagus.
UWDA

portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach.
CSP

The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach.
NCI

Organ with organ cavity which is continuous superiorly with the pharynx and inferiorly with the stomach. Examples: There is only one esophagus.
FMA

The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25 cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; thoracic part, from thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach. (NCI)
NCI

digestive tube connecting the throat to the stomach
CHV

The portion of the digestive canal between the pharynx and stomach. It is about 25 cm long and consists of three parts: the cervical part, from the cricoid cartilage to the thoracic inlet; thoracic part, from thoracic inlet to the diaphragm; and abdominal part, below the diaphragm to the cardiac opening of the stomach.
NCI

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ezotropie

A form of ocular misalignment characterized by an excessive convergence of the visual axes, resulting in a “cross-eye” appearance. An example of this condition occurs when paralysis of the lateral rectus muscle causes an abnormal inward deviation of one eye on attempted gaze.
MSH

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Esocidae

A family of freshwater fish of the order ESOCIFORMES, comprising the pikes, inhabiting the waters of the Northern Hemisphere. There is one genus, Esox, with five species: northern pike, grass pickerel, chain pickerel, muskellunge, and Amur pike.
MSH

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estazolam

A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant properties. It has been shown in some cases to be more potent than DIAZEPAM or NITRAZEPAM.
MSH

A triazolo-benzodiazepine with anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic, and muscle relaxant properties. Estazolam binds to the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor at a site distinct from the inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA binding site in the limbic system of the central nervous system (CNS). This binding leads to an opening of the chloride channels, which allows the flow of chloride ions into the neuron, hyperpolarizes the neuronal membrane, inhibits neuronal firing, and leads to a decrease in neuronal excitability.
NCI

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esterasy

any of various enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of an ester to produce an alcohol and an acid.
CSP

Dye and chemical solution stains for medical purposes are mixtures of synthetic or natural dyes or nondye chemicals in solutions used in staining cells and tissues for diagnostic histopathology, cytopathology, or hematology.
SPN

Encoded by Esterase Genes, Esterases catalyze hydrolysis of ester bonds to produce alcohol and acid reaction products. (NCI)
NCI

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esterifikace

The process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative. Most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol. Esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
MSH

process of converting an acid into an alkyl or aryl derivative; most frequently the process consists of the reaction of an acid with an alcohol in the presence of a trace of mineral acid as catalyst or the reaction of an acyl chloride with an alcohol; esterification can also be accomplished by enzymatic processes.
CSP

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estery

organic compound formed by removal of water from an acid and an alcohol.
CSP

A chemical substance made when an acid and an alcohol combine and water is removed. Esters are found in essential oils (scented oils that come from plants).
NCI

Any chemical compound derived by reacting an oxoacid with a hydroxyl compound such as an alcohol or phenol. (Wikipedia)
NCI

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estetrol

A metabolite of ESTRIOL with a 15-alpha-hydroxyl group. Estetrol can be converted from estriol sulfate or DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE by the fetal-placental unit.
MSH

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estetika

The branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of the beautiful. It includes beauty, esthetic experience, esthetic judgment, esthetic aspects of medicine, etc.
MSH

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estetika stomatologická

Skills, techniques, standards, and principles used to improve the art and symmetry of the teeth and face to improve the appearance as well as the function of the teeth, mouth, and face. (From Boucher`s Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p108)
MSH

Who doesn`t want a perfect smile? While few people have one naturally, almost anyone can get one with the help of their dentist. In addition to orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth, recent advances in dental materials and techniques offer near-perfect teeth that are almost as strong as the originals.

Things your dentist can do to improve your smile include

  • Bleaching to make teeth whiter
  • Repairing chips or rough spots with fillings that match your teeth
  • Filling cavities with tooth-colored materials
  • Reshaping teeth that don`t match the others
  • Closing gaps between teeth
  • Covering broken teeth with porcelain crowns


MEDLINEPLUS

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spánek letní

In certain living species, a period of dormancy during the summer months marked by decreased metabolism.
MSH

Any process in which an organism enters and maintains a period of dormancy, similar to hibernation, but that occurs during the summer. It insulates against heat to prevent the harmful effects of the season. [GOC:jl, http://www.wikipedia.org/Estivation, PMID:12443930]
GO

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Estonsko

A country in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland, between Latvia and Russia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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estradiol

Generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries and the PLACENTA. It is also produced by the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women. The 17-alpha-isomer of estradiol binds weakly to estrogen receptors (RECEPTORS, ESTROGEN) and exhibits little estrogenic activity in estrogen-responsive tissues. Various isomers can be synthesized.
MSH

generally refers to the 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position; estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
CSP

a steroid sex hormone
CHV

A form of the hormone estrogen.
NCI

A steroid sex hormone vital to the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. Typically esterified, estradiol derivatives are formulated for oral or parenteral administration. As the primary, most potent estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries, estradiol binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors. Estradiol exhibits mild anabolic and metabolic properties, and increases blood coagulability. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39236&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39236&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C478″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

The most potent form of the naturally occurring steroid sex hormone in humans, produced by ovary, placenta, testis, and in small amount by adrenal cortex. Estradiol binds to a specific intracellular estrogen receptor located in female organs, breasts, hypothalamus and pituitary. The receptor-ligand complex promotes gene expression necessary for the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. In addition, estradiol exhibits mild anabolic and metabolic properties, and increases blood coagulability. Estradiol, the principal intracellular human estrogen, is substantially more active at the cellular level than its metabolites, estrone and estriol.
NCI

A steroid sex hormone vital to the maintenance of fertility and secondary sexual characteristics in females. Typically esterified, estradiol derivatives are formulated for oral or parenteral administration. As the primary, most potent estrogen hormone produced by the ovaries, estradiol binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors. Estradiol exhibits mild anabolic and metabolic properties, and increases blood coagulability.
NCI

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Estradiol 17 beta-Dehydrogenase

Expressed in many peripheral tissues (high in placenta) by human HSD17B2 Gene (SDR Family), 387-aa 43-kDa Hydroxysteroid 17-Beta Dehydrogenase 2 is a potential type II membrane protein enzyme with an N-terminal type II signal-anchor motif and a C-terminal ER retention motif, likely associated with ER membranes, that uses NADH in the oxidative inactivation metabolism of testosterone and androstenedione, as well as estradiol and estrone. HSD17B2 also has 3-beta-HSD activity and 20-alpha-HSD activity toward 20-alpha-dihydroprogesterone. (NCI)
NCI

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estradiol – antagonisté

Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or action of estradiol.
MSH

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estradioldehydrogenasy

Enzymes that catalyze the oxidation of estradiol at the 17-hydroxyl group in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to yield estrone and NADH or NADPH. The 17-hydroxyl group can be in the alpha- or beta-configuration. EC 1.1.1.62
MSH

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estramustin

A nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties.
MSH

A combination of the hormone estradiol (an estrogen) and nitrogen mustard (an anticancer drug). Used in the palliative therapy of prostate cancer.
NCI

A synthetic molecule combining estradiol and nornitrogen mustard through a carbamate link. Estramustine and its major metabolite estramustine bind to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule dynamics and leading to anaphase arrest in a dose-dependent fashion. This agent also exhibits anti-androgenic effects. (NCI04)
NCI

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Estramustine Phosphate Sodium

The orally available disodium salt, monohydrate, of estramustine phosphate, a synthetic molecule that combines estradiol and nornitrogen mustard through a carbamate link. Estramustine and its major metabolite estramustine bind to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule dynamics and leading to anaphase arrest in a dose-dependent fashion. This agent also exhibits anti-androgenic effects. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39235&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39235&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C479″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

The orally available disodium salt, monohydrate, of estramustine phosphate, a synthetic molecule that combines estradiol and nornitrogen mustard through a carbamate link. Estramustine and its major metabolite estramustine bind to microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs) and tubulin, thereby inhibiting microtubule dynamics and leading to anaphase arrest in a dose-dependent fashion. This agent also exhibits anti-androgenic effects.
NCI

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estrany

A group of compounds forming the nucleus of the estrogenic steroid family.
MSH

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estreny

Unsaturated derivatives of the ESTRANES with methyl groups at carbon-13, with no carbon at carbon-10, and with no more than one carbon at carbon-17. They must contain one or more double bonds.
MSH

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estriol

A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3-beta, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
MSH

oxidation product of estradiol and estrone, having relatively weak estrogenic activity, detectable in high concentration in urine, especially human pregnancy urine.
CSP

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estrogeny – antagonisté

Compounds which inhibit or antagonize the action or biosynthesis of estrogenic compounds.
MSH

substances or agents which suppress, prevent or oppose the action of estrogen.
CSP

A substance that keeps cells from making or using estrogen (a hormone that plays a role in female sex characteristics, the menstrual cycle, and pregnancy). Estrogen blockers may stop some cancer cells from growing and are used to prevent and treat breast cancer. They are also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. An estrogen blocker is a type of hormone antagonist.
NCI

Substances that inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or biologic effects of estrogens by either antagonizing the responsiveness of estrogen sensitive tissues or competing with their binding sites.
NCI

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