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Hantavirus

genus of the family Bunyaviridae causing diseases such as hemorrhagic fever, nephropathia epidemica, and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome; first identified during the Korean war; infection is found primarily in rodents and humans; includes the species Hantaan virus.
CSP

A genus of the family BUNYAVIRIDAE causing HANTAVIRUS INFECTIONS, first identified during the Korean war. Infection is found primarily in rodents and humans. Transmission does not appear to involve arthropods. HANTAAN VIRUS is the type species.
MSH

A genus of single-stranded, segmented, negative-sense RNA viruses in the family bunyaviridae. These viruses are transmitted by aerosolized rodent excreta or rodent bites.
NCI

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arenaviry – Nový svět

One of two groups of viruses in the ARENAVIRUS genus and considered part of the New World complex. It includes JUNIN VIRUS; PICHINDE VIRUS; Amapari virus, and Machupo virus among others. They are the cause of human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
MSH

one of two groups of viruses in the Arenavirus genus, causing human hemorrhagic fevers mostly in Central and South America.
CSP

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hemoragická horečka americká

Diseases caused by American hemorrhagic fever viruses (ARENAVIRUSES, NEW WORLD).
MSH

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hemoragická horečka krymská

A severe, often fatal disease in humans caused by the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (HEMORRHAGIC FEVER VIRUS, CRIMEAN-CONGO).
MSH

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hemoragická horečka dengue

A virulent form of dengue characterized by THROMBOCYTOPENIA and an increase in vascular permeability (grades I and II) and distinguished by a positive pain test (e.g., TOURNIQUET PAIN TEST). When accompanied by SHOCK (grades III and IV), it is called dengue shock syndrome.
MSH

A serious condition caused by Dengue virus infection. Patients present with an acute febrile illness followed by restlessness, irritability, and bleeding. It may lead to hemorrhagic shock and death.
NCI

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hemoragická horečka epidemická

An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.
MSH

A disorder caused by hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae. It is transmitted by rodents and is manifested with fever, hemorrhage, and renal failure. Other symptoms include headaches, abdominal and back pain, and blurred vision.
NCI

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hemoragická horečka omská

Infection with the Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus, a Flavivirus.
MSH

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hemoragické horečky virové

A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.
MSH

syndrome that occurs in perhaps 20-40 percent of infections by a number of different viruses of the families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, Filoviridae, etc; some types of hemorrhagic fever are tick borne, others mosquito borne, and some seem to be zoonoses; clinical manifestations are high fever, scattered petechiae, gastrointestinal tract and other organ bleeding, hypotension, and shock; kidney damage may be severe and neurologic signs may appear.
CSP

Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses caused by four families of viruses. These include the Ebola and Marburg viruses and Lassa fever virus. VHFs have common features: they affect many organs, they damage the blood vessels and they affect the body`s ability to regulate itself. Some VHFs cause mild disease, but some, like Ebola or Marburg, cause severe disease and death.

VHFs are found around the world. Specific diseases are usually limited to areas where the animals that carry them live. For example, Lassa fever is limited to rural areas of West Africa where rats and mice carry the virus.

The risk for travelers is low, but you should avoid visiting areas where there are disease outbreaks. Because there are no effective treatments for some of these viral infections, there is concern about their use in bioterrorism.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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HEMORROIDEAK

Swollen veins in the lower part of the RECTUM or ANUS. Hemorrhoids can be inside the anus (internal), under the skin around the anus (external), or protruding from inside to outside of the anus. People with hemorrhoids may or may not exhibit symptoms which include bleeding, itching, and pain.
MSH

An enlarged or swollen blood vessel, usually located near the anus or the rectum.
NCI

Hemorrhoids are swollen, inflamed veins around the anus or lower rectum. They are either inside the anus or under the skin around the anus. They often result from straining to have a bowel movement. Other factors include pregnancy, aging and chronic constipation or diarrhea.

Hemorrhoids are very common in both men and women. About half of all people have hemorrhoids by age 50. The most common symptom of hemorrhoids inside the anus is bright red blood covering the stool, on toilet paper or in the toilet bowl. Symptoms usually go away within a few days.

If you have rectal bleeding you should see a doctor. You need to make sure bleeding is not from a more serious condition such as colorectal or anal cancer. Treatment may include warm baths and a cream or other medicine. If you have large hemorrhoids, you may need surgery and other treatments.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by the presence of dilated veins in the rectum and surrounding area.
NCI

Dilated veins in the rectum and anal area.
NCI

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hemosideróza

Conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM, without demonstrable tissue damage. The name refers to the presence of stainable iron in the tissue in the form of hemosiderin.
MSH

conditions in which there is a generalized increase in the iron stores of body tissues, particularly of liver and the reticuloendothelial system, without demonstrable tissue damage.
CSP

Accumulation of iron in internal organs.
NCI

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hemostáza

The process which spontaneously arrests the flow of BLOOD from vessels carrying blood under pressure. It is accomplished by contraction of the vessels, adhesion and aggregation of formed blood elements (eg. ERYTHROCYTE AGGREGATION), and the process of BLOOD COAGULATION.
MSH

process of arresting blood flow or bleeding, either physiologically by vasoconstriction and coagulation or by mechanical or surgical means.
CSP

The arrest of bleeding, either by the natural processes of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means.
NCI

The stopping of bleeding (loss of body fluid) or the arrest of the circulation to an organ or part. [ISBN:0198506732 “Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology”]
GO

The arrest of bleeding, either by the physiological properties of vasoconstriction and coagulation or by surgical means.
NCI

body function that stops bleeding by coagulating blood and constricting blood vessel
CHV

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hemostáza chirurgická

Control of bleeding during or after surgery.
MSH

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hemostatické techniky

Techniques for controlling bleeding.
MSH

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hemostatika

Agents acting to arrest the flow of blood. Absorbable hemostatics arrest bleeding either by the formation of an artificial clot or by providing a mechanical matrix that facilitates clotting when applied directly to the bleeding surface. These agents function more at the capillary level and are not effective at stemming arterial or venous bleeding under any significant intravascular pressure.
MSH

agent that arrests the flow of blood.
CSP

An agent that promotes hemostasis.
NCI

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hemotorax

Hemorrhage within the pleural cavity.
MSH

A collection of blood in the pleural cavity.
NCI

A disorder characterized by bleeding from the pleural cavity.
NCI

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hemotoxiny

substances, usually of biological origin, that destroy blood cells; may be antibodies or other immunologic factors, toxins, enzymes, etc.; hemotoxins are toxic to blood in general, including the clotting mechanism; hematotoxins may refer to the hematopoietic system.
CSP

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hempa

A chemosterilant agent that is anticipated to be a carcinogen.
MSH

A clear, colorless liquid with an aromatic odor that emits toxic fumes of phosphorous oxides and nitrogen oxides when heated to decomposition. Hexamethylphosphoramide is used as a stabilizer against thermal degradation in polystyrene and is used as a solvent in research laboratories. Exposure to this substance irritates the eyes, skin and respiratory-tract. Hexamethylphosphoramide is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (NCI05)
NCI

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Hepadnaviridae

family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals, including woodchucks, ground squirrels, and Peking ducks; causes hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, immune complex disease, polyarteritis, and aplastic anemia.
CSP

A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).
MSH

A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. Contains two genera: avihepadnavirus and orthohepadnavirus.
NCI

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heparin

A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.
MSH

poly(glucosamine sulfate-glucuronic acid); endogenous mucopolysaccharide with antithrombin and lipotropic activities; USP injection is used as an anticoagulant.
CSP

Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology laboratory for the following purposes: (1) To disaggregate tissues and cells already in established cultures for preparation into subsequent cultures (e.g., trypsin); (2) To disaggregate fluid specimens for cytological examination (e.g., papain for gastric lavage or trypsin for sputum liquefaction); (3) To aid in the selective staining of tissue specimens (e.g., diastase for glycogen determination).
SPN

A substance that slows the formation of blood clots. Heparin is made by the liver, lungs, and other tissues in the body and can also made in the laboratory. Heparin may be injected into muscle or blood to prevent or break up blood clots. It is a type of anticoagulant.
NCI

A sulfur-rich glycosaminoglycan with anticoagulant property. Heparin binds to antithrombin III to form a heparin-antithrombin III complex. The complex binds to and irreversibly inactivates thrombin and other activated clotting factors, such as factors IX, X, XI, and XII, thereby preventing the polymerization of fibrinogen to fibrin and the subsequent formation of clots.
NCI

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heparin – antagonisté

Coagulant substances inhibiting the anticoagulant action of heparin.
MSH

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heparinový kofaktor II

A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.
MSH

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heparin nízkomolekulární

Heparin fractions with a molecular weight usually between 4000 and 6000 kD. These low-molecular-weight fractions are effective antithrombotic agents. Their administration reduces the risk of hemorrhage, they have a longer half-life, and their platelet interactions are reduced in comparison to unfractionated heparin. They also provide an effective prophylaxis against postoperative major pulmonary embolism.
MSH

Substances comprised of fragmented heparin molecules derived from unfractionated heparin that bind to antithrombin III with a molecular weight ranging from 1000 to 10,000 daltons, which causes changes in property from unfractionated heparin, including decreased protein binding, enhanced bioavailability, decreased platelet interaction, and decreased binding to thrombin.
NCI

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heparinoid

Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
MSH

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heparitinsulfát

A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
MSH

similar to heparin but with some L-iduronic acid residues.
CSP

Heparitin Sulfate. A glycosaminoglycan, structurally similar to heparin but with more N-acetyl groups and fewer O- and N-sulfate groups. Occurs in the liver, aorta, and lung. Accumulates in several mucopolysaccharidoses.
NCI

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hepatektomie

Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

excision of all or part of the liver.
CSP

Surgery to remove all or part of the liver.
NCI

Surgical removal of all or part of the liver.
NCI

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arteria hepatica

A branch of the celiac artery that distributes to the stomach, pancreas, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, and greater omentum.
MSH

The major blood vessel that carries blood to the liver.
NCI

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ductus hepaticus communis

Predominantly extrahepatic bile duct which is formed by the junction of the right and left hepatic ducts, which are predominantly intrahepatic, and, in turn, joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct.
MSH

A tube that carries bile from the liver. It starts where the right and left hepatic (liver) ducts join outside the liver. It ends where the cystic duct from the gall bladder joins it to form the common bile duct. It is part of the biliary duct system.
NCI

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jaterní encefalopatie

A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)
MSH

A constellation of signs and symptoms characterized by changes in personality, consciousness, and reflexes, resulting from neuropsychiatric abnormalities secondary to liver failure without evidence of other brain disease.
NCI

syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with liver failure, including portal-systemic shunts; clinical features include lethargy and confusion, frequently progressing to coma, asterixis, nystagmus, brisk oculovestibular reflexes, decorticate and decerebrate posturing, muscle spasticity, and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes.
CSP

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venae hepaticae

Veins which drain the liver.
MSH

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játra – okluze žil

Liver disease that is caused by injuries to the ENDOTHELIAL CELLS of the vessels and subendothelial EDEMA, but not by THROMBOSIS. Extracellular matrix, rich in FIBRONECTINS, is usually deposited around the HEPATIC VEINS leading to venous outflow occlusion and sinusoidal obstruction.
MSH

A condition in which some of the veins in the liver are blocked. It is sometimes a complication of high-dose chemotherapy given before a bone marrow transplant and is marked by increases in weight, liver size, and blood levels of bilirubin.
NCI

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