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histokompatibilita – antigeny třídy I

Membrane glycoproteins consisting of an alpha subunit and a BETA 2-MICROGLOBULIN beta subunit. In humans, highly polymorphic genes on CHROMOSOME 6 encode the alpha subunits of class I antigens and play an important role in determining the serological specificity of the surface antigen. Class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells and are generally detected by their reactivity with alloantisera. These antigens are recognized during GRAFT REJECTION and restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus-infected cells.
MSH

large transmembrane, polymorphic glycoproteins noncovalently associated with nonpolymorphic beta 2-microglobulin; in humans, three structural genes on chromosome 6 code for the HLA-A, HLA-B and HLA-C antigens, and in mice three genes on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens; class I antigens are found on most nucleated cells, are recognized during graft rejection, restrict cell-mediated lysis of virus infected cells, and are associated with rheumatologic diseases and certain malignant disorders.
CSP

Found on virtually every cell, MHC (Major Histocompatibility, HLA) Class-I (Antigens) Proteins consist of noncovalently bound polymorphic 44-kDa MHC membrane glycoprotein and nonpolymorphic 12-kDa b2-microglobulin. The HLA antigens are encoded by closely linked multiallelic genes of the HLA (MHC) complex, a region containing several genetic loci (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DP, -DQ, -DR, -MB, -MT, and -Te).
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histokompatibilita – antigeny třídy II

Large, transmembrane, non-covalently linked glycoproteins (alpha and beta). Both chains can be polymorphic although there is more structural variation in the beta chains. The class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D ANTIGENS and are coded by a gene on chromosome 6. In mice, two genes named IA and IE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens. The antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells, and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response. The term IA antigens used to refer only to the proteins encoded by the IA genes in the mouse, but is now used as a generic term for any class II histocompatibility antigen.
MSH

large transmembrane non-covalently linked glycoproteins; class II antigens in humans are called HLA-D antigens and coded on a gene on chromosome 6; in mice two genes named IA and iE on chromosome 17 code for the H-2 antigens; class II antigens are found on B-lymphocytes, macrophages, epidermal cells and sperm and are thought to mediate the competence of and cellular cooperation in the immune response.
CSP

One of a group of proteins found on the surface of white blood cells and other cells that play an important part in the body`s immune response to foreign substances. These antigens vary from person to person, and human leukocyte antigen tests are done before organ transplantation to find out if tissues match between a donor and a recipient.
NCI

MHC Class-II Proteins are non-covalently linked polymorphic alpha/beta transmembrane glycoproteins. The immunological function of MHC Class-II proteins is to bind and present antigenic peptides on the surfaces of cells for recognition by the antigen-specific T cell receptors of lymphocytes. These proteins plays an important role in the mediation of immune response.
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histokompatibilita – testování

Identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant DONORS and potential recipients, usually by serological tests. Donor and recipient pairs should be of identical ABO blood group, and in addition should be matched as closely as possible for HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in order to minimize the likelihood of allograft rejection. (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
MSH

identification of the major histocompatibility antigens of transplant donors and potential recipients, usually by serological tests.
CSP

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histocytochemie

Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.
MSH

The study of cells and tissues using chemical staining techniques.
NCI

study of chemical changes and chemical constitution of tissues and cells.
CSP

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histologické techniky

Methods of preparing tissue for examination and study of the origin, structure, function, or pathology.
MSH

Technique or procedure used for the study of the microanatomy of tissues and their cellular structure; usually involves microscopic examination of tissue slices.
NCI

The examination of tissue specimens under a microscope.
NCI

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histologie

The study of the structure of various TISSUES of organisms on a microscopic level.
MSH

field of biology that studies the microscopic anatomy and function of tissues.
CSP

The study of tissues and cells under a microscope.
NCI

The study of tissues and cells under a microscope
CHV

The study of the structure of the cells and their arrangement to constitute tissues and, finally, the association among these to form organs. In pathology, the microscopic process of identifying normal and abnormal morphologic characteristics in tissues, by employing various cytochemical and immunocytochemical stains.
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histologie srovnávací

The study of the similarities and differences in the structures of homologous tissues across various species.
MSH

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histondeacetylasy

An enzyme that removes a small molecule called an acetyl group from histones (proteins found in chromosomes). This changes the way the histones bind to DNA and may affect its activity. HDAC inhibitors are being studied in the treatment of cancer.
NCI

Deacetylases that remove N-acetyl groups from amino side chains of the amino acids of HISTONES. The enzyme family can be divided into at least three structurally-defined subclasses. Class I and class II deacetylases utilize a zinc-dependent mechanism. The sirtuin histone deacetylases belong to class III and are NAD-dependent enzymes.
MSH

Histone acetylation and deacetylation alternately exposes and occludes DNA to transcription factors. Histone deacetylation is catalyzed by the histone deacetylases. There are at least 2 classes of HDACs, class I consisting of proteins homologous to yeast Rpd3 (e.g., HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3) and class II consisting of proteins homologous to yeast Hda1 (e.g., HDAC4 and HDAC6). (from OMIM)
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Histone H1

Linker Histone H1 interacts with DNA between nucleosome units in mediating chromatin compaction into higher order structures. Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for the nucleosome structure of eukaryotic chromatin. Repeating nucleosome units contain two molecules each of core Histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 that form an octamer complex around which approximately 146 base pairs of DNA is wrapped. (NCI)
NCI

Lysine rich histone. Termed linker histone, it is more loosely associated with the nucleosome than the core octamer histones. A number of variants exist, some are tissue-specific.
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Histone H2a

Slightly lysine rich histone. One of four histones assembled into a nucleosomal core octamer. Various posttranslationally modified forms and variants exist. Combines with histone H2B in a heterodimer; two H2A/H2B dimers are incorporated in the nucleosomal octamer.
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Histone H3

Histone H3 is a core subunit of the eukaryotic nucleosome complex. Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for the nucleosome structure of chromatin. Repeating nucleosome units contain two molecules each of Histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 that form an octamer complex around which approximately 146 base pairs of DNA is wrapped. Linker Histone H1 interacts with DNA between nucleosome units in mediating chromatin compaction into higher order structures. (NCI)
NCI

Arginine rich histone. One of four histones assembled into a nucleosomal core octamer. Various posttranslationally modified forms and variants exist. Combines with histone H4 in a heterotetramer of composition (H3)2(H4)2; one tetramer is incorporated in the nucleosomal octamer.
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Histone H4

Histone H4 is a core subunit of the eukaryotic nucleosome complex. Histones are basic nuclear proteins responsible for the nucleosome structure of chromatin. Repeating nucleosome units contain two molecules each of Histones H2A, H2B, H3, and H4 that form an octamer complex around which approximately 146 base pairs of DNA is wrapped. The nucleosome interacts with DNA between nucleosome units in mediating chromatin compaction into higher order structures. (Entrez Gene)
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histonkinasa

An aspect of protein kinase (EC 2.7.1.37) in which serine residues in protamines and histones are phosphorylated in the presence of ATP. EC 2.7.1.70.
MSH

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histony

Small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages. Classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc.) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
MSH

small chromosomal proteins (approx 12-20 kD) possessing an open, unfolded structure and attached to the DNA in cell nuclei by ionic linkages; classification into the various types (designated histone I, histone II, etc) is based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each.
CSP

A type of protein found in chromosomes. Histones bind to DNA, help give chromosomes their shape, and help control the activity of genes.
NCI

Major protein component of chromatin. Highly conserved basic proteins, originally classified into classes based on the relative amounts of arginine and lysine in each protein. The various classes are now termed H1, H2A, H2B, H3, and H4. In chromatin, they are found in an octamer, containing two each of H2A, H2B, H3, and H4, complexed with DNA in nucleosomes. The histones in the octamer complex are also known as the core histones. The H1 class of histones, termed the linker histones, is loosely associated with the nucleosome.
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Histoplasma

mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing histoplasmosis in humans and animals; its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii; its teleomorph is Ajellomyces capsulatus.
CSP

A mitosporic Onygenales fungal genus causing HISTOPLASMOSIS in humans and animals. Its single species is Histoplasma capsulatum which has two varieties: H. capsulatum var. capsulatum and H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Its teleomorph is AJELLOMYCES capsulatus.
MSH

A genus of microscopic fungus that causes the disease histoplasmosis.
NCI

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histoplazmóza

Infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus HISTOPLASMA, species H. capsulatum. It is worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

infection resulting from inhalation or ingestion of spores of the fungus of the genus Histoplasma; worldwide in distribution and particularly common in the midwestern United States.
CSP

A disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. It primarily affects the lungs but can also occur as a disseminated disease that affects additional organs. The acute respiratory disease has symptoms similar to those of a cold or flu and it usually resolves without treatment in healthy individuals. The disseminated form is generally fatal if untreated.
NCI

a kind of fungal infection
CHV

Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by a fungus (or mold.) The fungus is common in the eastern and central United States. It grows in soil and material contaminated with bat or bird droppings. You get infected by breathing the fungal spores. You cannot get the infection from someone else.

Histoplasmosis is often mild, with no symptoms. If you do get sick, it usually affects your lungs. Symptoms include feeling ill, fever, chest pains, and a dry cough. In severe cases, histoplasmosis spreads to other organs; this is called disseminated disease. Disseminated disease is more common in infants, young children, seniors, and people with immune system problems.

Tests for histoplasmosis include blood or urine tests and tissue samples. Chest x-rays and CT scans may also help to diagnose it. Mild cases usually get better without treatment. Treatment of severe or chronic cases is with antifungal drugs.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


MEDLINEPLUS

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historiografie

The writing of history; the principles, theory, and history of historical writing; the product of historical writing. (Webster, 3d ed)
MSH

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Historical aspects qualifier

Used for the historical aspects of any subject. It includes brief historical notes but excludes case histories.
MSH

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History of Medicine, Ancient

The period of the history of medicine before 500 A.D.
MSH

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History of Medicine, Medieval

The period of the history of medicine from 500 through 1450 A.D.
MSH

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History of Medicine, Modern

The period of the history of medicine from 1601 A.D. to the present.
MSH

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histrionství

A personality disorder characterized by overly reactive and intensely expressed or overly dramatic behavior, proneness to exaggeration, emotional excitability, and disturbances in interpersonal relationships.
MSH

A disorder characterized by an enduring pattern of excessively intense and superficial emotionality, attention seeking behavior, seductive appearance and speech, self dramatization and/or theatrical behavior.
NCI

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HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
MSH

species of Lentivirus, subgenus primate lentiviruses, formerly designated T cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV); it is acknowledged to be the agent responsible for the acute infectious manifestations, neurologic disorders, and immunologic abnormalities linked to the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
CSP

The cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
NCI

A cytopathic retrovirus. It is the etiological agent of AIDS.
NCI

The virus isolated and recognized as the etiologic agent of AIDS. HIV-1 is classified as a lentivirus, a subtype of retroviruses.
NCI

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HIV protilátky

Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
MSH

A substance produced by certain white blood cells in reaction to contact with HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus.
NCI

Produced by B-cells, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies reacts with HIV antigens. HIV is a virus which affects white blood cells and eventually destroys the body`s natural ability to fight infections.
NCI

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HIV antigeny

Antigens associated with specific proteins of the human adult T-cell immunodeficiency virus (HIV); also called HTLV-III-associated and lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) antigens.
MSH

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HIV obalový protein gp120

External envelope protein of the human immunodeficiency virus which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 120 kDa and contains numerous glycosylation sites. Gp120 binds to cells expressing CD4 cell-surface antigens, most notably T4-lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Gp120 has been shown to interfere with the normal function of CD4 and is at least partly responsible for the cytopathic effect of HIV.
MSH

glycoprotein encoded by HIV envelope gene (env) with a molecular weight of 120,000; interaction between gp120 and CD4 on T-helper cells is involved in the recognition of the cells by HIV and the binding of HIV to those cells.
CSP

A protein produced by the human immunodeficiency virus that functions as a viral anti-receptor attachment protein. The protein is localized to the viral envelope and mediates fusion between viral and cellular membranes.
NCI

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HIV obalový protein gp41

Transmembrane envelope protein of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS which is encoded by the HIV env gene. It has a molecular weight of 41,000 and is glycosylated. The N-terminal part of gp41 is thought to be involved in CELL FUSION with the CD4 ANTIGENS of T4 LYMPHOCYTES, leading to syncytial formation. Gp41 is one of the most common HIV antigens detected by IMMUNOBLOTTING.
MSH

transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by HIV envelope gene (env) with a molecular weight of 41,000 daltons; anchors gp120 to the viral particle.
CSP

A protein produced by the human immunodeficiency virus that functions as a viral attachment protein on the viral envelope. This transmembrane protein is a glycoprotein that non-covalently anchors gp120 to the virus particle.
NCI

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HIV infekce

any state of infection accompanied by evidence of HIV in the body (positive test for HIV genome, cDNA, proteins, antigens, or antibodies); may be medically asymptomatic or symptomatic; use AIDS when appropriate.
CSP

Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
MSH

An infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus.
NCI

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genové produkty rev – virus lidské imunodeficience

Proteins encoded by the REV GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
MSH

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HIV séronegativita

Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
MSH

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