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estrogeny – substituční terapie

The use of hormonal agents with estrogen-like activity in postmenopausal or other estrogen-deficient women to alleviate effects of hormone deficiency, such as vasomotor symptoms, DYSPAREUNIA, and progressive development of OSTEOPOROSIS. This may also include the use of progestational agents in combination therapy.
MSH

Hormones (estrogen, progesterone, or both) given to postmenopausal women or to women who have had their ovaries surgically removed. Hormones are given to replace the estrogen no longer produced by the ovaries.
NCI

The administration of estrogen, especially in postmenopausal women, to relieve menopausal symptoms and to protect against osteoporosis and heart disease. (Bartleby.com)
NCI

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estrogeny konjugované (USP)

Purified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription. (NCI04)
NCI

A pharmaceutical preparation containing a mixture of water-soluble, conjugated estrogens derived wholly or in part from URINE of pregnant mares or synthetically from ESTRONE and EQUILIN. It contains a sodium-salt mixture of estrone sulfate (52-62%) and equilin sulfate (22-30%) with a total of the two between 80-88%. Other concomitant conjugates include 17-alpha-dihydroequilin, 17-alpha-estradiol, and 17-beta-dihydroequilin. The potency of the preparation is expressed in terms of an equivalent quantity of sodium estrone sulfate.
MSH

Purified orally bioavailable female sex hormones isolated from pregnant mare urine or synthetically derived from plant materials and primarily conjugated as sulfate esters. Estrogen binds to and activates specific nuclear receptors, which, in turn, bind to estrogen response elements (EREs) in target genes, resulting in histone acetylation, alteration of chromatin conformation, and initiation of transcription. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39237&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39237&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C482″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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estrogeny

Compounds that interact with ESTROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of ESTRADIOL. Estrogens stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female SEX CHARACTERISTICS. Estrogenic chemicals include natural, synthetic, steroidal, or non-steroidal compounds.
MSH

hormones which stimulate the female reproductive organs, and the development of secondary female sex characteristics.
CSP

A type of hormone made by the body that helps develop and maintain female sex characteristics and the growth of long bones. Estrogens can also be made in the laboratory. They may be used as a type of birth control and to treat symptoms of menopause, menstrual disorders, osteoporosis, and other conditions.
NCI

A class of natural or synthetic hormones that binds to a cytoplasmic receptor and initiates translocation of the hormone-receptor complex to the nucleus of target cells of tissues rich in estrogen receptors, including the endometrium, myometrium, oviduct, vagina, fallopian tube, cervix, brain, liver, placenta, ovarian cells, Leydigs cells, kidney, prostate, pancreas, heart, and skin. (NCI)
NCI

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estrogeny nesteroidní

Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
MSH

Estrogens that are not steroids, but have a structural configuration resembling steroids and may mimic steroidal estrogen effect or bind to estrogen receptors.
NCI

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Estrogens, Synthetic

synthetic or natural chemical compounds which resemble naturally occurring estrogens in structure and/or function.
CSP

Compounds obtained by chemical synthesis which possess estrogenic activity, but differ in structure from naturally occurring estrogens.
MSH

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estron

An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
MSH

aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen; converted from androstenedione directly, or from testosterone via estradiol; in humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, placenta, and the adipose tissue of men and postmenopausal women.
CSP

One of three naturally occuring estrogens synthesized from androstenedione in the adrenal glands and peripheral tissues by aromatization and is the primary estrogen produced after menopause.
NCI

The synthetic form of a naturally occurring estrogen estrone. Estrone diffuses through the cell membrane and binds to and subsequently activates the nuclear estrogen receptor found in the reproductive tract, breast, pituitary, hypothalamus, liver, and bone. The activated hormone-receptor complex gets translocated to the nucleus where it binds to the estrogen response element on the DNA and promotes the transcription of target genes involved in the functioning of the female reproductive system and secondary sex characteristics. Estrone increases the hepatic synthesis of sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), thyroid-binding globulin (TBG), and other serum proteins, as well as suppresses the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary.
NCI

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estrus

The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
MSH

recurrent restricted period of sexual receptivity in female mammals other than humans and some nonhuman primates.
CSP

The estrous cycle phase in which a female is sexually receptive. [GOC:dph, ISBN:0721662544 “Dorland`s Illustrated Medical Dictionary”]
GO

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estrus – detekce

Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
MSH

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estrus – synchronizace

Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
MSH

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etazolát

A potent phosphodiesterase inhibitor proposed as an antipsychotic agent.
MSH

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ethakridin

A topically applied anti-infective agent.
MSH

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Ethacrynate Sodium

The sodium salt form of ethacrynic acid, an aryloxy-acetic acid derivative belonging to the class of loop diuretics. Ethacrynic sodium interferes with the chloride binding site of the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter system in the thick ascending loop of Henle, thereby inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. This leads to an increase in the excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and water.
NCI

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kyselina ethakrynová

A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.
MSH

An aryloxy-acetic acid derivative belonging to the class of loop diuretics. Ethacrynic acid interferes with the chloride binding site of the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter system in the thick ascending loop of Henle, thereby inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. This leads to an increase in the excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and water. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41163&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41163&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C485″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An aryloxy-acetic acid derivative belonging to the class of loop diuretics. Ethacrynic acid interferes with the chloride binding site of the Na+, K+, Cl- cotransporter system in the thick ascending loop of Henle, thereby inhibiting the reabsorption of sodium, potassium, and chloride ions. This leads to an increase in the excretion of sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, and water.
NCI

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ethambutol

An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
MSH

antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus; it may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria.
CSP

An antibiotic with bacteriostatic, antimicrobial and antitubercular properties. Ethambutol interferes with the biosynthesis of arabinogalactan, a major polysaccharide of the mycobacterial cell wall. It inhibits the polymerization of cell wall arabinan of arabinogalactan and lipoarabinomannan by blocking arabinosyl transferases and induces the accumulation of D-arabinofuranosyl-P-decaprenol, an intermediate in arabinan biosynthesis. This results in halting bacterial growth.
NCI

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ethamoxytrifetol

A non-steroidal estrogen antagonist.
MSH

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ethamsylát

Benzenesulfonate derivative used as a systemic hemostatic.
MSH

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ethany

hydrocarbon of the methane series, C2H6; a constituent of natural gas.
CSP

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ethanolaminamoniaklyasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of ethanolamine to acetaldehyde. EC 4.3.1.7.
MSH

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ethanolaminfosfotransferasa

An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the transfer of phosphoethanolamine from CDP-ethanolamine to diacylglycerol to yield phosphatidylethanolamine (cephalin) and CMP. The enzyme is found in the endoplasmic reticulum. EC 2.7.8.1.
MSH

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ethanolaminy

AMINO ALCOHOLS containing the ETHANOLAMINE; (-NH2CH2CHOH) group and its derivatives.
MSH

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ethchlorvynol

A sedative and hypnotic that has been used in the short-term management of INSOMNIA. Its use has been superseded by other drugs.
MSH

A member of the class of tertiary carbinols with sedative and hypnotic properties. Ethchlorvynol appears to depress the central nervous system by binding at a benzodiazepine-GABA-A-chloride ionophore receptor complex, located in the limbic, thalamic and hypothalamic regions of the central nervous system (CNS). This increases the frequency of chloride channel opening, allowing the flow of chloride ions into the neuron and ultimately leading to membrane hyperpolarization and a decrease in neuronal excitability.
NCI

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ethenoadenosintrifosfát

1,N-6-Ethenoadenosine triphosphate. A fluorescent analog of adenosine triphosphate.
MSH

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ethylether

A mobile, very volatile, highly flammable liquid used as an inhalation anesthetic and as a solvent for waxes, fats, oils, perfumes, alkaloids, and gums. It is mildly irritating to skin and mucous membranes.
MSH

An organic compound in which two carbon atoms are linked through an oxygen atom (C-O-C). An ether may be a product of the condensation of alcohols. Ether also refers loosely to diethyl-ether, a colorless, volatile, highly inflammable liquid used in industry and biomedical research, and historically important as an anesthetic agent. In vivo, ether acts similarly to alcohol and chloroform, but its stimulant action on the heart is much more marked. Ether is a rapidly diffusible stimulant. (NCI04)
NCI

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ethery

organic compound having an oxygen atom bonded to two carbon atoms, general formula R-O-R`.
CSP

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ethery cyklické

Compounds of the general formula R-O-R arranged in a ring or crown formation.
MSH

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etická analýza

The use of systematic methods of ethical examination, such as CASUISTRY or ETHICAL THEORY, in reasoning about moral problems.
MSH

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etický relativismus

The philosophical view that conceptions of truth and moral values are not absolute but are relative to the persons or groups holding them. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed)
MSH

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etika

The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
MSH

rules or principles which govern right conduct; the branch of philosophy that studies such principles.
CSP

The philosophical study of moral values and rules. Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the “science of morality”. The Western tradition of ethics is sometimes called moral philosophy. This is one of the three major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics and logic.
NCI

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etika stomatologická

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

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etika institucionální

The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.
MSH

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