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lidské inženýrství

The science of designing, building or equipping mechanical devices or artificial environments to the anthropometric, physiological, or psychological requirements of the people who will use them.
MSH

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experimenty na lidech

The use of humans as investigational subjects.
MSH

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Human Genetics

The branch of genetics focusing on human heredity.
NCI

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lidský genom – projekt

A coordinated effort of researchers to map (CHROMOSOME MAPPING) and sequence (SEQUENCE ANALYSIS, DNA) the human GENOME.
MSH

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lidská práva

The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
MSH

basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled, often held to include the right to life and liberty, freedom of thought and expression, and equality before the law.
CSP

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humanismus

An ethical system which emphasizes human values and the personal worth of each individual, as well as concern for the dignity and freedom of humankind.
MSH

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humerus

Long bone which is part of the arm.
FMA

The upper arm bone between the shoulder and elbow. (NCI)
NCI

The upper arm bone between the shoulder and elbow.
NCI

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kyseliny huminové

A complex mixture of dark colored hetero-polymeric phenolic compounds found in HUMUS; COAL; and PEAT; resulting from the decomposition of organic matter, particularly dead plants. They are soluble in alkali and carbonates, only slightly soluble at physiological pH, and can chelate metals.
MSH

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vlhkost

A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
MSH

dampness, due to air containing or characterized by a high amount of water or water vapor.
CSP

A measure of the water vapor content of air.
NCI

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humor

Works consisting of jokes and facetiae relating to a subject.
MSH

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Maďarsko

A country in Central Europe, northwest of Romania. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Central Europe, northwest of Romania. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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hlad

The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
MSH

normal drive for nutrients; do not confuse with STARVATION.
CSP

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Huntingtonova nemoc

A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)
MSH

chronic progressive chorea and mental deterioration terminating in dementia; the age of onset usually is in the fourth decade of life.
CSP

Huntington`s disease (HD) is an inherited disease that causes certain nerve cells in the brain to waste away. People are born with the defective gene, but symptoms usually don`t appear until middle age. Early symptoms of HD may include uncontrolled movements, clumsiness or balance problems. Later, HD can take away the ability to walk, talk or swallow. Some people stop recognizing family members. Others are aware of their environment and are able to express emotions.

If one of your parents has Huntington`s disease, you have a 50-50 chance of getting it. A blood test can tell if you have the HD gene and will develop the disease. Genetic counseling can help you weigh the risks and benefits of taking the test.

There is no cure. Medicines can help manage some of the symptoms, but cannot slow down or stop the disease.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A progressive hereditary neurodegenerative disorder inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Symptoms may appear at any age and include uncontrolled movements, clumsiness, balance problems, difficulty walking, talking, or swallowing. The disease has a progressive course with a decline in mental abilities, and the development of psychiatric problems.
NCI

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hurikány

Northern hemisphere CYCLONIC STORMS east of the International Dateline to the Greenwich Meridian, with winds over 74 mph.
MSH

A hurricane is a severe type of tropical storm. Hurricanes produce high winds, heavy rains and thunderstorms. Hurricanes can cause tremendous damage. Winds can exceed 155 miles per hour. Hurricanes and tropical storms can also spawn tornadoes and lead to flooding. The high winds and heavy rains can destroy buildings, roads and bridges, and knock down power lines and trees. In coastal areas, very high tides called storm surges cause extensive damage.

Although there are no guarantees of safety during a hurricane, you can take actions to protect yourself. You should have a disaster plan. Being prepared can help reduce fear, anxiety and losses.

Federal Emergency Management Agency


MEDLINEPLUS

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hyalin

clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
CSP

A clear, homogenous, structureless, eosinophilic substance occurring in pathological degeneration of tissues.
MSH

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nemoc hyalinních membrán

A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).
MSH

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kyselina hyaluronová

A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.
MSH

A glucosaminoglycan consisting of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine disaccharide units that is a component of connective tissue, skin, vitreous humour, umbilical cord, synovial fluid and the capsule of certain microorganisms contributing to adhesion, elasticity, and viscosity of extracellular substances.
NCI

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hyaluronoglukosaminidasa

An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.
MSH

Enzyme preparations are products that are used in the histopathology laboratory for the following purposes: (1) To disaggregate tissues and cells already in established cultures for preparation into subsequent cultures (e.g., trypsin); (2) To disaggregate fluid specimens for cytological examination (e.g., papain for gastric lavage or trypsin for sputum liquefaction); (3) To aid in the selective staining of tissue specimens (e.g., diastase for glycogen determination).
SPN

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heterosis

The adaptive superiority of the heterozygous GENOTYPE with respect to one or more characters in comparison with the corresponding HOMOZYGOTE.
MSH

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hybridizace genetická

The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
MSH

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hybridomy

Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
MSH

cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells; the resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure or monoclonal antibodies or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent, and continually grow and divide as the neoplastic parent.
CSP

A tumor of hybrid cells used in the in vitro production of specific monoclonal antibodies; produced by fusion of an established tissue culture line of lymphocyte tumor cells (e.g., mouse plasmacytoma cells) and specific antibody-producing cells (e.g., splenocytes from specifically immunized mice); fusions are accomplished by use of polyethylene glycol or other methods.
NCI

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hykanthon

Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.
MSH

A thioxanthene derivative of lucanthone with anti-schistosomal activity and potential antineoplastic activity. Hycanthone interferes with parasite nerve function, resulting in parasite paralysis and death. This agent also intercalates into DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis in vitro. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39477&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39477&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C550″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A thioxanthene derivative of lucanthone with anti-schistosomal activity and potential antineoplastic activity. Hycanthone interferes with parasite nerve function, resulting in parasite paralysis and death. This agent also intercalates into DNA and inhibits RNA synthesis in vitro. (NCI04)
NCI

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Hydantoin

group of anticonvulsants containing an allantoin heterocyclic base.
CSP

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hydantoiny

Compounds based on imidazolidine dione. Some derivatives are ANTICONVULSANTS.
MSH

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mola hydatidosa

Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
MSH

trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy; characterized by the swelling of the chorionic villi and elevated human chorionic gonadotropin; hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
CSP

A slow-growing tumor that develops from trophoblastic cells (cells that help an embryo attach to the uterus and help form the placenta) after fertilization of an egg by a sperm. A hydatidiform mole contains many cysts (sacs of fluid). It is usually benign (not cancer) but it may spread to nearby tissues (invasive mole). It may also become a malignant tumor called choriocarcinoma. Hydatidiform mole is the most common type of gestational trophoblastic tumor.
NCI

A gestational disorder characterized by an abnormal placenta with marked enlargement of the chorionic villi and hyperplasia of the villous trophoblastic cells. According to the amount of villous involvement, a hydatidiform mole is defined as complete or partial. Most molar pregnancies are complete and are characterized by generalized hydropic villous changes. Partial moles are characterized by a mixture of large hydropic villi and normal placenta tissue. Complete moles are usually diploid and typically present between the eleventh and twenty-fifth week of pregnancy, whereas partial moles are usually triploid and usually present around the nineteenth week of pregnancy. The incidence of choriocarcinoma is higher in patients with complete hydatidiform mole. When a hydatidiform mole invades the myometrium and broad ligament, or it is found in distant sites as vagina, vulva, and lung, it is referred as invasive mole.
NCI

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Hydra

A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.
MSH

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hydralazin

A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.
MSH

direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive.
CSP

A phthalazine derivative with antihypertensive effects. Hydralazine exerts its vasodilatory effects through modification of the contractile state of arterial vascular smooth muscle by altering intracellular calcium release, and interfering with smooth muscle cell calcium influx. This agent also causes inhibition of phosphorylation of myosin protein or chelation of trace metals required for smooth muscle contraction, thereby resulting in an increase in heart rate, stroke volume and cardiac output.
NCI

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hydramnion

A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
MSH

An excess quantity of amniotic fluid in the amniotic sac as compared to normal values.
NCI

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hydranencefalie

A congenital condition where the greater portions of the cerebral hemispheres and CORPUS STRIATUM are replaced by CSF and glial tissue. The meninges and the skull are well formed, which is consistent with earlier normal embryogenesis of the telencephalon. Bilateral occlusions of the internal carotid arteries in utero is a potential mechanism. Clinical features include intact brainstem reflexes without evidence of higher cortical activity. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p307)
MSH

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Hydrazine

A highly reactive base and reducing agent used in many industrial and medical applications. In biological applications, hydrazine and its derivatives exhibit antidepressant properties by inhibiting monoamine oxidase (MAO), an enzyme that catalyzes the deamination and inactivation of certain stimulatory neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine and dopamine. In psychiatry, the use of hydrazine derivatives is limited due to the emergence of the tricyclic antidepressants. (NCI04)
NCI

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