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hydraziny

colorless, gaseous diamine, H2N-NH2, or its substitution derivatives.
CSP

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hydrazony

Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

compound formed from an aldehyde or ketone by the action of phenylhydrazine.
CSP

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hydrolyasy

Enzymes that catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond leading to unsaturated products via the removal of water. EC 4.2.1.
MSH

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hydroa vacciniforme

A vesicular and bullous eruption having a tendency to recur in summer during childhood and commonly appearing on sun-exposed skin. The lesions are surrounded by an erythematous zone and resemble a vaccination. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

A rare skin disorder of unknown etiology affecting children. It is a photodermatitis, characterized by the formation of vesicles and scarring on sun exposed areas.
NCI

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uhlovodíky

organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen only.
CSP

A substance made of only hydrogen and carbon. Examples of hydrocarbons are coal, petroleum, natural gas and tar. They are used as energy sources. Being exposed to hydrocarbons may increase the risk of certain types of cancer.
NCI

A group of organic compounds that consist of only hydrogen (H) and carbon (C) atoms and are involved in energy production. They may be cyclic or non-cyclic compounds. They may have double bonds, single bonds or both with carbon forming the backbone.
NCI

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uhlovodíky acyklické

Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen where no carbon atoms join to form a ring structure.
MSH

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uhlovodíky alicyklické

Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen. Three or more carbon atoms are arranged in a cyclic structure and they possess aliphatic properties.
MSH

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uhlovodíky aromatické

Organic compounds containing carbon and hydrogen in the form of an unsaturated, usually hexagonal ring structure. The compounds can be single ring, or double, triple, or multiple fused rings.
MSH

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uhlovodíky chlorované

Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
MSH

organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen, with chlorine atoms substituting for one or more hydrogens.
CSP

Organochlorines are a group of compounds belonging to the chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides (as aldrin, DDT, or dieldrin). These compounds are believed to associated with many cancers, especially with breast cancer.
NCI

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uhlovodíky cyklické

Organic compounds composed exclusively of carbon and hydrogen forming a closed ring that may be either alicyclic or aromatic.
MSH

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uhlovodíky fluorované

organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen, with fluorine atoms substituting for one or more hydrogens.
CSP

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uhlovodíky halogenované

organic compound that contains carbon and hydrogen, with halogen atoms substituting for one or more hydrogens.
CSP

Compounds consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and one or more halogen.
NCI

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hydrocefalus

Excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be associated with dilation of cerebral ventricles, INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; HEADACHE; lethargy; URINARY INCONTINENCE; and ATAXIA.
MSH

excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the cranium which may be a congenital or acquired disorder; hydrocephalus ex-vacuo refers to ventricular dilation that occurs as a result of brain substance loss from cerebral infarction and other conditions.
CSP

The abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
NCI

Hydrocephalus is the buildup of too much cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. Normally, this fluid cushions your brain. When you have too much, though, it puts harmful pressure on your brain.

There are two kinds of hydrocephalus. Congenital hydrocephalus is present at birth. Causes include genetic problems and problems with how the fetus develops. An unusually large head is the main sign of congenital hydrocephalus. Acquired hydrocephalus can occur at any age. Causes can include head injuries, strokes, infections, tumors and bleeding in the brain. Symptoms of acquired hydrocephalus can include

  • Headache
  • Vomiting and nausea
  • Blurry vision
  • Balance problems
  • Bladder control problems
  • Thinking and memory problems

Hydrocephalus can permanently damage the brain, causing problems with physical and mental development. If untreated, it is usually fatal. With treatment, many people lead normal lives with few limitations. Treatment usually involves surgery to insert a shunt. Medicine and rehabilitation therapy can also help.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
NCI

excessive gathering of cerebrospinal fluid within the head bone
CHV

A disorder characterized by an abnormal increase of cerebrospinal fluid in the ventricles of the brain.
NCI

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hydrocefalus normotenzní

A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
MSH

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kyselina chlorovodíková

A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.
MSH

aqueous solutions of hydrogen chloride; a highly corrosive strong mineral acid, used as a laboratory reagent and also secreted by the gastric parietal cells.
CSP

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hydrochlorthiazid

A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
MSH

drug that increases voiding
CHV

The hydrogenated derivative of chlorothiazide, a thiazide diuretic with antihypertensive and anti-urolithic effects. This agent binds to the electroneutral Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) and thereby impairs Na+, K+ and Cl- reabsorption on the luminal membrane of the early segment in the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This leads to an increase in urinary excretion of sodium, chloride, potassium, bicarbonate and water subsequently reducing plasma and extracellular fluid volume leading to a reduction in blood pressure. Hydrochlorothiazide also decreases urinary calcium and uric acid excretion by direct action on the distal tubule.
NCI

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hydrokodon

Narcotic analgesic related to CODEINE, but more potent and more addicting by weight. It is used also as cough suppressant.
MSH

A semisynthetic hydrogenated codeine derivative and opioid agonist with analgesic and antitussive effects. Hydrocodone primarily binds to and activates the mu-opioid receptor in the central nervous system (CNS). This leads to analgesia, euphoria, respiratory depression, miosis, decreased gastrointestinal motility, cough suppression and physical dependence. Hydrocodone is converted to hydromorphone by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6.
NCI

a kind of pain relieving drug
CHV

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hydrokortison

The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
MSH

main glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex; its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
CSP

A drug used to relieve the symptoms of certain hormone shortages and to suppress an immune response.
NCI

A hormone made by the adrenal cortex (the outer layer of the adrenal gland). It helps the body use glucose (a sugar), protein, and fats. Cortisol made in the laboratory is called hydrocortisone. It is used to treat many conditions, including inflammation, allergies, and some cancers. Cortisol is a type of glucocorticoid hormone.
NCI

A synthetic or semisynthetic analog of natural hydrocortisone hormone produced by the adrenal glands with primary glucocorticoid and minor mineralocorticoid effects. As a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39274&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39274&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C555″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic or semisynthetic analog of natural hydrocortisone hormone produced by the adrenal glands with primary glucocorticoid and minor mineralocorticoid effects. As a glucocorticoid receptor agonist, hydrocortisone promotes protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, capillary wall stability, renal excretion of calcium, and suppresses immune and inflammatory responses. (NCI04)
NCI

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kyselina kyanovodíková

Hydrogen cyanide (HCN); A toxic liquid or colorless gas. It is found in the smoke of various tobacco products and released by combustion of nitrogen-containing organic materials.
MSH

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hydroflumethiazid

A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p822)
MSH

A thiazide diuretic with antihypertensive activity. Hydroflumethiazide directly inhibits sodium and chloride reabsorption on the luminal membrane of the early segment of the distal convoluted tubule in the kidney. This results in an increase in water, sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate excretion and a decrease in calcium and uric acid secretion. (NCI05)
NCI

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kyselina fluorovodíková

Hydrofluoric acid. A solution of hydrogen fluoride in water. It is a colorless fuming liquid which can cause painful burns.
MSH

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vodík

The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
MSH

first chemical element in the periodic table; atomic symbol H, atomic number 1; it exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas; hydrogen ions are protons.
CSP

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vodíková vazba

A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.
MSH

strong intermolecular forces produced by the attraction of a hydrogen atom, already covalently bonded to one electronegative atom, to a second electronegative atom of the same molecule or an adjacent molecule; these bonds are found in compounds containing strong electronegative atoms such as fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen.
CSP

The physical association between an electronegative atom and a hydrogen atom that is directly bound to a second, relatively electronegative atom. (IUPAC Gold Book)
NCI

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peroxid vodíku

A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
MSH

strong oxidizing agent and disinfectant, H2O2, used in aqueous solution as a bleach and topical anti-infective.
CSP

A chemical used in bleaches, dyes, cleansers, antiseptics, and disinfectants. In a concentrated form, it is toxic and irritating to tissues.
NCI

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sirovodík

A flammable, poisonous gas with a characteristic odor of rotten eggs. It is used in the manufacture of chemicals, in metallurgy, and as an analytical reagent. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

toxic gas, H2S.
CSP

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vodíkové ionty – koncentrace

The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

Quantity of dimension one used to express on a scale from 0 to 14 the amount-of-substance concentration of hydrogen ion of dilute aqueous solution, calculated as the logarithm of the reciprocal of hydrogen-ion concentration in gram atoms per liter.
NCI

The log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
MSH

A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a fluid on a scale of 0 to 14.
NCI

pH(1 mol/l)


HL7V3.0

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hydrogenasa

An enzyme found in bacteria. It catalyzes the reduction of FERREDOXIN and other substances in the presence of molecular hydrogen and is involved in the electron transport of bacterial photosynthesis.
MSH

specific enzyme (EC 1.18.99.1) that catalyzes the conversion of H+ to hydrogen gas via oxidation of ferredoxin; do not use for general term to cover other hydrogenating enzymes.
CSP

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hydrogenace

Addition of hydrogen to a compound, especially to an unsaturated fat or fatty acid. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
MSH

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hydrolasy

Any member of the class of enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of the substrate and the addition of water to the resulting molecules, e.g., ESTERASES, glycosidases (GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASES), lipases, NUCLEOTIDASES, peptidases (PEPTIDE HYDROLASES), and phosphatases (PHOSPHORIC MONOESTER HYDROLASES). EC 3.
MSH

Enzymes (EC class 3) cleaving substrates with addition of H2O at the point of cleavage; e.g., esterases, phosphatases, nucleases, peptidases. SYN hydrolyzing enzymes.
NCI

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hydrolýza

The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
MSH

process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
CSP

A chemical reaction that uses water to break down a compound.
NCI

A chemical reaction in which a water molecule is added to a compound. This addition often involves the splitting or cleavage of the molecule. The hydroxyl group is incorporated into one fragment of the compound and the hydrogen atom in the other.
NCI

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