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hydronefróza

Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.
MSH

distention of the pelvis and calices of the kidney with urine, as a result of obstruction of the ureter, with accompanying atrophy of the parenchyma of the organ.
CSP

Abnormal enlargement of a kidney, which may be caused by blockage of the ureter (such as by a kidney stone) or chronic kidney disease that prevents urine from draining into the bladder.
NCI

water retention in the kidney
CHV

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vodnáři – jedy

Venoms of sea snakes, Hydrophiinae, found around Pacific islands. The venoms contain fewer enzymes and more neuro- or myotoxins than land snakes. The neurotoxic proteins are similar to elapid small, short, or type I neurotoxins, some of which have been characterized.
MSH

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hydroftalmus

Congenital open-angle glaucoma that results from dysgenesis of the angle structures accompanied by increased intraocular pressure and enlargement of the eye. Treatment is both medical and surgical.
MSH

Abnormally large eyeball.
NCI

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hydropneumotorax

A collection of fluid and gas within the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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hydrops fetalis

Abnormal accumulation of serous fluid in two or more fetal compartments, such as SKIN; PLEURA; PERICARDIUM; PLACENTA; PERITONEUM; AMNIOTIC FLUID. General fetal EDEMA may be of non-immunologic origin, or of immunologic origin as in the case of ERYTHROBLASTOSIS FETALIS.
MSH

A condition characterized by fluid accumulation in two or more anatomic compartments in the fetus. Causes include Rh incompatibility, congenital heart defects, and chromosomal abnormalities.
NCI

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hydroquinone

1,4-dihydroxybenzene.
CSP

Produced as an inhibitor, an antioxidant, and an intermediate in the synthesis of dyes, motor fuels, and oils; in photographic processing; and naturally in certain plant species, Hydroquinone is a phenol derivative with antioxidant properties that can cause toxicity in several organs, notably the kidney. Used as a topical treatment for skin hyperpigmentation and in various cosmetic products, it is metabolized mainly to glutathione conjugates and forms mutagenic DNA adducts in in-vitro systems. (NCI04)
NCI

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hydrostatický tlak

The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
MSH

pressure at any level on a fluid at rest due the weight of the fluid above it.
CSP

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hydroterapie

External application of water for therapeutic purposes.
MSH

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hydrotorax

A collection of watery fluid in the pleural cavity. (Dorland, 27th ed)
MSH

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kyseliny hydroxamové

A class of weak acids with the general formula R-CONHOH.
MSH

A group of weak acids with the general chemical formula RC(=O)N(R`)OH and antineoplastic and antimicrobial activities. Hydroxamic acids covalently bind to the zinc(II) ion in the active sites of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP), thereby inhibiting the action of MMPs, inducing extracellular matrix degradation, and inhibiting angiogenesis, tumor growth and invasion, and metastasis. (NCI04)
NCI

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hydroxidy

Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
MSH

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hydroxokobalamin

Injectable form of VITAMIN B 12 that has been used therapeutically to treat VITAMIN B 12 DEFICIENCY.
MSH

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hydroxykyseliny

Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
MSH

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hydroxyacetylaminofluoren

A N-hydroxylated derivative of 2-ACETYLAMINOFLUORENE that has demonstrated carcinogenic action.
MSH

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hydroxyapatity

A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

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kyseliny hydroxybenzoové

Benzoic acid substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
MSH

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hydroxybutyráty

Salts and esters of hydroxybutyric acid.
MSH

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hydroxychlorochin

A chemotherapeutic agent that acts against erythrocytic forms of malarial parasites. Hydroxychloroquine appears to concentrate in food vacuoles of affected protozoa. It inhibits plasmodial heme polymerase. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman`s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p970)
MSH

A substance that decreases immune responses in the body. It is used to treat some autoimmune diseases, and is being studied as a treatment for graft-versus-host disease. Hydroxychloroquine belongs to the family of drugs called antiprotozoals.
NCI

A 4-aminoquinoline with antimalarial and immunosuppressive properties. Although its precise mechanism of action is unknown, hydroxychloroquine may suppress immune function by interfering with the processing and presentation of antigens and the production of cytokines. This agent is highly active against the erythrocytic forms of P. vivax and malariae and most strains of P. falciparum but not the gametocytes of P. falciparum. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38571&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=38571&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C557″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A 4-aminoquinoline with immunosuppressive, antiautophagy, and antimalarial activities. Although the precise mechanism of action is unknown, hydroxychloroquine may suppress immune function by interfering with the processing and presentation of antigens and the production of cytokines. As a lysosomotropic agent, hydroxychloroquine raises intralysosomal pH, impairing autophagic protein degradation; hydroxychloroquine-mediated accumulation of ineffective autophagosomes may result in cell death in tumor cells reliant on autophagy for survival. In addition, this agent is highly active against the erythrocytic forms of P. vivax and malariae and most strains of P. falciparum but not the gametocytes of P. falciparum.
NCI

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hydroxycholekalciferoly

Hydroxy analogs of vitamin D 3; (CHOLECALCIFEROL); including CALCIFEDIOL; CALCITRIOL; and 24,25-DIHYDROXYVITAMIN D 3.
MSH

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hydroxycholesteroly

cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
CSP

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hydroxykortikosteroidy

A group of corticosteroids carrying hydroxy groups, usually in the 11- or 17-positions. They comprise the bulk of the corticosteroids used systemically. As they are relatively insoluble in water, salts of various esterified forms are often used for injections or solutions.
MSH

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hydroxydopaminy

Dopamines with a hydroxy group substituted in one or more positions.
MSH

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kyseliny hydroxyeikosatetraenové

Eicosatetraenoic acids substituted in any position by one or more hydroxy groups. They are important intermediates in a series of biosynthetic processes leading from arachidonic acid to a number of biologically active compounds such as prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes.
MSH

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hydroxyestrony

Estrone derivatives substituted with one or more hydroxyl groups in any position. They are important metabolites of estrone and other estrogens.
MSH

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hydroxyethylový škrob

A derivative of STARCH used as a plasma substitute in the treatment of hemorrhage.
MSH

a plasma substitute
CHV

A plasma volume expander.
NCI

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hydroxyethylrutosid

Monohydroxyethyl derivative of rutin. Peripheral circulation stimulant used in treatment of venous disorders.
MSH

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kyselina hydroxyindoloctová

A breakdown product of serotonin that is excreted in the urine. Serotonin is a hormone found at high levels in many body tissues. Serotonin and 5HIAA are produced in excess amounts by carcinoid tumors, and levels of these substances may be measured in the urine to test for carcinoid tumors.
NCI

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hydroxylamin

organic compounds that contain the -NH2OH radical.
CSP

A colorless inorganic compound (HONH2) used in organic synthesis and as a reducing agent, due to its ability to donate nitric oxide.
MSH

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hydroxylaminy

Organic compounds that contain the (-NH2OH) radical.
MSH

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oxygenasy se smíšenou funkcí

Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.
MSH

These enzymes use molecular oxygen catalyze the donation of one oxygen atom to a substrate specific site, while the other atom is donated to the generation of water. The enzyme uses molecular oxygen as the oxygen source instead of water, and is critical for several endocrine function operations.
NCI

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