Additional pages

etika lékařská

The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
MSH

The field of ethics studies principles of right and wrong. There is hardly an area in medicine that doesn`t have an ethical aspect. For example, there are ethical issues relating to

  • End of life care: Should a patient receive nutrition? What about advance directives and resuscitation orders?
  • Abortion: When does life begin? Is it ethical to terminate a pregnancy with a birth defect?
  • Genetic and prenatal testing: What happens if you are a carrier of a defect? What if testing shows that your unborn baby has a defect?
  • Birth control: Should it be available to minors?
  • Is it ethical to harvest embryonic stem cells to treat diseases?
  • Organ donation: Must a relative donate an organ to a sick relative?
  • Your personal health information: who has access to your records?
  • Patient rights: Do you have the right to refuse treatment?
  • When you talk with your doctor, is it ethical for her to withhold information from you or your family?

Below you`ll find some links about ethics in medicine.


MEDLINEPLUS

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etika ošetřovatelská

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etika farmaceutická

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etika profesionální

The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethidium

A trypanocidal agent and possible antiviral agent that is widely used in experimental cell biology and biochemistry. Ethidium has several experimentally useful properties including binding to nucleic acids, noncompetitive inhibition of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, and fluorescence among others. It is most commonly used as the bromide.
MSH

bromide is a fluorescent DNA-intercalating dye used as a chromatin stain, mutagen, and mutagenesis resistance marker; bromide and chloride are also used as trypanosomicides.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethinylestradiol

A semisynthetic alkylated ESTRADIOL with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution. It has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.
MSH

semisynthetic alkylated estradiol with a 17-alpha-ethinyl substitution; has high estrogenic potency when administered orally, and is often used as the estrogenic component in oral contraceptives.
CSP

A semisynthetic estrogen. Ethinyl estradiol binds to the estrogen receptor complex and enters the nucleus, activating DNA transcription of genes involved in estrogenic cellular responses. This agent also inhibits 5-alpha reductase in epididymal tissue, which lowers testosterone levels and may delay progression of prostatic cancer. In addition to its antineoplastic effects, ethinyl estradiol protects against osteoporosis. In animal models, short-term therapy with this agent has been shown to provide long-term protection against breast cancer, mimicking the antitumor effects of pregnancy. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39238&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39238&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C486″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic estrogen. Ethinyl estradiol binds to the estrogen receptor complex and enters the nucleus, activating DNA transcription of genes involved in estrogenic cellular responses. This agent also inhibits 5-alpha reductase in epididymal tissue, which lowers testosterone levels and may delay progression of prostatic cancer. In addition to its antineoplastic effects, ethinyl estradiol protects against osteoporosis. In animal models, short-term therapy with this agent has been shown to provide long-term protection against breast cancer, mimicking the antitumor effects of pregnancy. (NCI04)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethjodizovaný olej

Ethyl ester of iodinated fatty acid of poppyseed oil. It contains 37% organically bound iodine and has been used as a diagnostic aid (radiopaque medium) and as an antineoplastic agent when part of the iodine is 131-I. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
MSH

A synthetic iodine addition product of the ethyl ester of the fatty acids of poppyseed oil. Ethiodized oil contains 37% organically bound iodine and is used as a diagnostic radiopaque medium or, labeled with I-131, as an antineoplastic agent. Selectively retained in tumor vessels for long periods, ethiodized oil is used for imaging organs such as liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. Labeled with I-131 or other beta emitters (Y-90 or P-32), ethiodol can deliver a high internal radiation dose to certain tumors with minimal effect on healthy tissues. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41024&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=41024&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C487″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic iodine addition product of the ethyl ester of the fatty acids of poppyseed oil. Ethiodized oil contains 37% organically bound iodine and is used as a diagnostic radiopaque medium or, labeled with I-131, as an antineoplastic agent. Selectively retained in tumor vessels for long periods, ethiodized oil is used for imaging organs such as liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. Labeled with I-131 or other beta emitters (Y-90 or P-32), ethiodol can deliver a high internal radiation dose to certain tumors with minimal effect on healthy tissues. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=355795&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=355795&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C487″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic iodine addition product of the ethyl ester of the fatty acids of poppy seed oil. Ethiodized oil contains 37% organically bound iodine and is used as a diagnostic radiopaque medium or, labeled with I-131, as an antineoplastic agent. Selectively retained in tumor vessels for long periods, ethiodized oil is used for imaging organs such as liver, lung, stomach, and thyroid. Labeled with I-131 or other beta emitters (Y-90 or P-32), ethiodol can deliver a high internal radiation dose to certain tumors with minimal effect on healthy tissues.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

amifostin

A phosphorothioate proposed as a radiation-protective agent. It causes splenic vasodilation and may block autonomic ganglia.
MSH

A phosphorylated aminosulfhydryl compound with cytoprotective activity. Amifostine is dephosphorylated by alkaline phosphatase to an active free sulfhydryl (thiol) metabolite in the body. The thiol metabolite binds to and detoxifies cytotoxic platinum-containing metabolites of cisplatin and scavenges free radicals induced by cisplatin and ionizing radiation. The elevated activity of this agent in normal tissues results from both the relative abundance of alkaline phosphatase in normal tissues and the greater vascularity of normal tissues compared to tumor tissues.
NCI

A drug used as a chemoprotective drug to control some of the side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethionamid

A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
MSH

A nicotinamide derivative, with antibacterial activity, used to treat tuberculosis. Although the exact mechanism of action of ethionamide is unknown, it may inhibit the synthesis of mycolic acid, a saturated fatty acid found in the bacterial cell wall, thereby inhibiting bacterial cell wall synthesis. This eventually leads to bacterial cell wall disruption and cell lysis. Ethionamide may be bacteriostatic or bactericidal in action, depending on the concentration of the drug at the site of infection and the susceptibility of the organism involved.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethionin

2-Amino-4-(ethylthio)butyric acid. An antimetabolite and methionine antagonist that interferes with amino acid incorporation into proteins and with cellular ATP utilization. It also produces liver neoplasms.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Etiopie

An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
MSH

A country in Eastern Africa, west of Somalia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Eastern Africa, west of Somalia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethisteron

17 alpha-Hydroxypregn-4-en-20-yn-3-one. A synthetic steroid hormone with progestational effects.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

čichová kost

A light and spongy (pneumatized) bone that lies between the orbital part of FRONTAL BONE and the anterior of SPHENOID BONE. Ethmoid bone separates the ORBIT from the ETHMOID SINUS. It consists of a horizontal plate, a perpendicular plate, and two lateral labyrinths.
MSH

A light and spongy bone that is cubical in shape. This bone is positioned at the anterior part of the cranium, sitting between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose. It consists of four parts: a horizontal or cribriform plate; a perpendicular plate; and two lateral masses or labyrinths. (NCI)
NCI

A light and spongy bone that is cubical in shape. This bone is positioned at the anterior part of the cranium, sitting between the two orbits, at the roof of the nose. It consists of four parts: a horizontal or cribriform plate; a perpendicular plate; and two lateral masses or labyrinths.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

sinus ethmoidalis

The numerous (6-12) small thin-walled spaces or air cells in the ETHMOID BONE located between the eyes. These air cells form an ethmoidal labyrinth.
MSH

A sinus of the meatuses of the nasal cavity. (NCI)
NCI

A type of paranasal sinus (a hollow space in the bones around the nose). Ethmoid sinuses are found in the spongy ethmoid bone in the upper part of the nose between the eyes. They are lined with cells that make mucus to keep the nose from drying out.
NCI

A sinus of the meatuses of the nasal cavity.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

sinusitis ethmoidalis

Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA in the ETHMOID SINUS. It may present itself as an acute (infectious) or chronic (allergic) condition.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etnické skupiny

a group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
CSP

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on ethnicity determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define ethnicity, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for ethnicity classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that ethnicity is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with a particular ethnicity is preferred to observer identification. The standards specify two minimum ethnicity categories: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino. The standards define a Hispanic or Latino as a person of “Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central America, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.” The standards stipulate that ethnicity data need not be limited to the two minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories. In addition, the standards stipulate that an individual can be Hispanic or Latino or can be Not Hispanic or Latino, but cannot be both.


HL7V3.0

In the United States, federal standards for classifying data on ethnicity determine the categories used by federal agencies and exert a strong influence on categorization by state and local agencies and private sector organizations. The federal standards do not conceptually define ethnicity, and they recognize the absence of an anthropological or scientific basis for ethnicity classification. Instead, the federal standards acknowledge that ethnicity is a social-political construct in which an individual`s own identification with a particular ethnicity is preferred to observer identification. The standards specify two minimum ethnicity categories: Hispanic or Latino, and Not Hispanic or Latino. The standards define a Hispanic or Latino as a person of “Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central America, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race.” The standards stipulate that ethnicity data need not be limited to the two minimum categories, but any expansion must be collapsible to those categories. In addition, the standards stipulate that an individual can be Hispanic or Latino or can be Not Hispanic or Latino, but cannot be both.

OpenIssue:This concept domain definition does not align with current vocabulary practices and is much too US-centric to be appropriate as a “universal” domain.


HL7V3.0

A social group characterized by a distinctive social and cultural tradition that is maintained from generation to generation. Members share a common history and origin and a sense of identification with the group. They have similar and distinctive features in their lifestyle habits and shared experiences. They often have a common genetic heritage which may be reflected in their experience of health and disease.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etnologie

The comparative and theoretical study of culture, often synonymous with cultural anthropology.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethnologic

Used with diseases for ethnic, cultural, or anthropological aspects, and with geographic headings to indicate the place of origin of a group of people.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etnopsychologie

Comparative PSYCHOLOGY of different ethnic and cultural groups.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethoglucid

Alkylating antineoplastic agent used especially in bladder neoplasms. It is toxic to hair follicles, gastro-intestinal tract, and vasculature.
MSH

An epoxide compound with potential antineoplastic alkylating activity. Etoglucid is able to crosslink DNA via its epoxide group, resulting in disruption of DNA function and cell cycle arrest.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

etologie

The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
MSH

discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethopabát

An inhibitor of folate metabolism. It is used as a coccidiostat in poultry.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethosuximid

An anticonvulsant especially useful in the treatment of absence seizures unaccompanied by other types of seizures.
MSH

A succinimide with anticonvulsant activity. The exact mechanism of action is not entirely understood, but most likely ethosuximide exerts its effects by partial antagonism of T-type calcium channels of the thalamic neurons. This leads to a decrease in burst firing of thalamocortical neurons, which stabilizes the nerve activity in the brain and prevents seizures.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

Ethotoin

A hydantoin anticonvulsant with anti-epileptic activity. The mechanism of action is not completely known, but is thought to be fairly similar to phenytoin. Ethotoin influences synaptic transmission by altering sodium and calcium ion influx across neuronal membranes in the repolarization, depolarization, and membrane stability phase and interferes with the calcium uptake in presynaptic terminals. This inhibits neuronal firing and results in the stabilization of neuronal membranes, thereby preventing the spread of seizure activity at the motor cortex.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethoxychin

Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethoxzolamid

A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethylbiskumacetát

A coumarin that is used as an anticoagulant. It has actions similar to those of WARFARIN. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p226)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethylchlorid

A gas that condenses under slight pressure. Because of its low boiling point ethyl chloride sprayed on skin produces an intense cold by evaporation. Cold blocks nerve conduction. Ethyl chloride has been used in surgery but is primarily used to relieve local pain in sports medicine.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethylmethansulfonát

An antineoplastic agent with alkylating properties. It also acts as a mutagen by damaging DNA and is used experimentally for that effect.
MSH

A sulfonoxyalkane with carcinogenic and teratogenic properties. Ethyl methanesulfonate ethylates DNA, thereby damaging DNA and leading to genetic mutations, single-stranded breaks in DNA, and chromosomal aberrations. Ethyl methanesulfonate may be used experimentally in biomedical research. (NCI04)
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

ethyldimethylaminopropylkarbodiimid

Carbodiimide cross-linking reagent.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…