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Hystrix

Old world PORCUPINES with shorter tails and rattle quills.
MSH

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krevní skupiny – systém I

A blood group related both to the ABO and P systems that includes several different antigens found in most people on erythrocytes, in milk, and in saliva. The antibodies react only at low temperatures.
MSH

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I-celziekte

rapidly progressing disease of young children, characterized histologically by abnormal fibroblasts containing a large number of dark inclusions which fill the central part of the cytoplasm except for the juxtanuclear zone (I cells), and clinically by severe growth impairment, minimal hepatomegaly, extreme mental and motor retardation, and clear corneas; inherited as an autosomal recessive trait, it is caused by failure of lysosomal enzymes to be incorporated into lysosomes.
CSP

An inherited lysosomal storage disease characterized by the presence of dense intracytoplasmic inclusions in mesenchymal cells, especially fibroblasts. Signs and symptoms include developmental delay, psychomotor deterioration, and growth failure.
NCI

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pertusový toxin

One of the virulence factors produced by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS. It is a multimeric protein composed of five subunits S1 – S5. S1 contains mono ADPribose transferase activity.
MSH

one of the virulence factors produced by Bordetella pertussis; has mono ADP ribose transferase activity.
CSP

Any of various biologically active proteins or toxins elaborated by Bordetella pertussis that cause the symptoms of whooping cough. Some activate pancreatic islets, others inhibit the adenylate cyclase cascade and some cause lymphocytosis.
NCI

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iatrogenní nemoci

Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by the patient during the course of treatment.
MSH

adverse conditions occurring as the result of treatment by a health professional; especially infections acquired during the course of treatment.
CSP

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ibogain

One of several indole alkaloids extracted from Tabernanthe iboga, Baill. It has a complex pharmacological profile, and interacts with multiple systems of neurotransmission. Ibogaine has psychoactive properties and appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
MSH

indole alkaloid with antidepressant and euphoric properties; appears to modulate tolerance to opiates.
CSP

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kyselina ibotenová

A neurotoxic isoxazole (similar to KAINIC ACID and MUSCIMOL) found in AMANITA mushrooms. It causes motor depression, ataxia, and changes in mood, perceptions and feelings, and is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist.
MSH

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ibuprofen

A nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with analgesic properties used in the therapy of rheumatism and arthritis.
MSH

nonsteroidal analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent that is a propionic acid derivative.
CSP

a chemical substance
CHV

A drug used to treat fever, swelling, pain, and redness by preventing the body from making a substance that causes inflammation. It is a type of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID).
NCI

A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. Ibuprofen inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. This leads to decreased prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, the main physiologic effect of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40475&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40475&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C561″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A propionic acid derivate and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antipyretic effects. Ibuprofen inhibits the activity of cyclo-oxygenase I and II, resulting in a decreased formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. This leads to decreased prostaglandin synthesis, by prostaglandin synthase, the main physiologic effect of ibuprofen. Ibuprofen also causes a decrease in the formation of thromboxane A2 synthesis, by thromboxane synthase, thereby inhibiting platelet aggregation. (NCI05)
NCI

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led

The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
MSH

Water frozen in the solid state.
NCI

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zmrzlina

A frozen dairy food made from cream or butterfat, milk, sugar, and flavorings. Frozen custard and French-type ice creams also contain eggs.
MSH

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Island

A country in Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Northern Europe, island between the Greenland Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, northwest of the UK. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Icelandic language

An Indo-European language belonging to the North Germanic (Scandinavian) branch; the official language of Iceland.
NCI

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ichtyóza

Any of several generalized skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis. Most are genetic, but some are acquired, developing in association with other systemic disease or genetic syndrome.
MSH

A group of inherited or acquired skin disorders characterized by a dry, thickened, and scaly skin. The skin changes range from mild to severe.
NCI

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Ichtyosis congenita

skin disorders characterized by dryness, roughness, and scaliness, due to hypertrophy of the stratum corneum epidermis that exist at, and usually before, birth regardless of their causation; most ichthyoses are genetically determined.
CSP

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Ictaluridae

A family of North American freshwater CATFISHES. It consists of four genera (Ameiurus, Ictalurus, Noturus, Pylodictis,) comprising several species, two of which are eyeless.
MSH

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id

The part of the personality structure which harbors the unconscious instinctive desires and strivings of the individual.
MSH

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Idaho

A state in the northern Rocky Mountains of western United States. Its capital is Boise.
NCI

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idarubicin

An orally administered anthracycline antineoplastic. The compound has shown activity against breast cancer, lymphomas and leukemias, together with the potential for reduced cardiac toxicity.
MSH

An anticancer drug that belongs to the family of drugs called antitumor antibiotics.
NCI

A semisynthetic anthracycline antineoplastic antibiotic derived from daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interacts with topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication and repair and RNA and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes better than other anthracycline antibiotics. Idarubicin hydrochloride is the therapeutic form of this drug. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39753&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C562″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic 4-demethoxy analogue of the antineoplastic anthracycline antibiotic daunorubicin. Idarubicin intercalates into DNA and interferes with the activity of topoisomerase II, thereby inhibiting DNA replication, RNA transcription and protein synthesis. Due to its high lipophilicity, idarubicin penetrates cell membranes more efficiently than other anthracycline antibiotic compounds.
NCI

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identifikace (psychologie)

A process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another. This process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
MSH

process by which an individual unconsciously endeavors to pattern himself after another; this process is also important in the development of the personality, particularly the superego or conscience, which is modeled largely on the behavior of adult significant others.
CSP

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identita – krize

Chaotic concept of self wherein one`s role in life appears to be an insoluble dilemma often expressed by isolation, withdrawal, rebellion and extremism.
MSH

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L-iditol-2-dehydrogenasa

An alcohol oxidoreductase which catalyzes the oxidation of L-iditol to L-sorbose in the presence of NAD. It also acts on D-glucitol to form D-fructose. It also acts on other closely related sugar alcohols to form the corresponding sugar. EC 1.1.1.14
MSH

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idoxuridin

An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
MSH

pyrimidine analog which inhibits viral DNA synthesis.
CSP

A drug that reduces the risk of cancer cell growth by interfering with the cells` DNA.
NCI

An iodinated analogue of deoxyuridine. Idoxuridine incorporates into DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle, sensitizing cells to ionizing radiation by increasing DNA strand breaks. When this agent contains a radioactive isomer of iodine, the radioactive idoxuridine kills cancer cells directly after preferential incorporation into the DNA of rapidly dividing tumor cells. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39481&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39481&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C563″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

An iodinated analogue of deoxyuridine. Idoxuridine incorporates into DNA during the S-phase of the cell cycle, sensitizing cells to ionizing radiation by increasing DNA strand breaks. When this agent contains a radioactive isomer of iodine, the radioactive idoxuridine kills cancer cells directly after preferential incorporation into the DNA of rapidly dividing tumor cells. (NCI04)
NCI

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iduronátsulfatasa

An enzyme that specifically cleaves the ester sulfate of iduronic acid. Its deficiency has been demonstrated in Hunter`s syndrome, which is characterized by an excess of dermatan sulfate and heparan sulfate. EC 3.1.6.13.
MSH

Iduronate 2-sulfatase (550 aa, ~62 kDa) is encoded by the human IDS gene. This protein is involved in the degradation of glycosaminoglycans.
NCI

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kyselina iduronová

Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.
MSH

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iduronidasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes iduronosidic linkages in desulfated dermatan. Deficiency of this enzyme produces Hurler`s syndrome. EC 3.2.1.76.
MSH

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ifosfamid

Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
MSH

2-oxo-N,3-bis-(2-chloroethyl) tetrahydro-2H-1,3,2-oxazaphosphorin- 2-amine; cyclophosphamide analog with two alkylating groups, used as a DNA strand crosslinker and antineoplastic.
CSP

A drug that is used with other drugs to treat germ cell testicular cancer that did not respond to previous treatment with other drugs. It is also being studied in the treatment of other types of cancer. Ifex attaches to DNA in cells and may kill cancer cells. It is a type of alkylating agent and a type of antimetabolite.
NCI

A synthetic analogue of the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide with antineoplastic activity. Ifosfamide alkylates and forms DNA crosslinks, thereby preventing DNA strand separation and DNA replication. This agent is a prodrug that must be activated through hydroxylation by hepatic microsomal enzymes. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40024&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40024&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C564″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic analogue of the nitrogen mustard cyclophosphamide with antineoplastic activity. Ifosfamide alkylates and forms DNA crosslinks, thereby preventing DNA strand separation and DNA replication. This agent is a prodrug that must be activated through hydroxylation by hepatic microsomal enzymes. (NCI04)
NCI

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imunoglobulin A

predominant immunoglobulin in seromucous secretions such as saliva, colostrum, milk, tracheobronchial and genitourinary secretions.
CSP

Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.
MSH

IgA is the immunoglobulin subclass that is associated with antibody-mediated mucosal immunity. It is secreted as dimers into the mucosa and is the most effective isotype at fixing complement by the alternative pathway, even though it lacks the ability to fix complement by the classical pathway. There are two subtypes in the human – IgA1 and IgA2.
NCI

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imunoglobulin A sekreční

The principle immunoglobulin in exocrine secretions such as milk, respiratory and intestinal mucin, saliva and tears. The complete molecule (around 400 kD) is composed of two four-chain units of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, one SECRETORY COMPONENT and one J chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN J-CHAINS).
MSH

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imunoglobulin D

present on the membrane of many circulating B lymphocytes; may play a role in antigen triggered lymphocyte differentiation.
CSP

An immunoglobulin which accounts for less than 1% of plasma immunoglobulin. It is found on the membrane of many circulating B LYMPHOCYTES.
MSH

An immunoglobulin isotype (subclass). This isotype is expressed on naive B cells along with IgM. Little is known about its physiologic role.
NCI

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imunoglobulin E

found on the surface membrane of basophils and mast cells in all individuals; may play a role in active immunity to helminthic parasites but in developed countries it is more commonly associated with immediate hypersensitivity diseases such as asthma and hay fever.
CSP

An immunoglobulin associated with MAST CELLS. Overexpression has been associated with allergic hypersensitivity (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE).
MSH

a kind of antibody that plays an important role in allergy
CHV

An immunoglobulin isotype (subclass). This isotype has the unique ability to bind with high affinity to IgE receptors (FceRI) on mast cells and basophils and induce degranulation and cytokine production by these cells when they are crosslinked by antigen. In addition to a central role in atopy and allergic responses, it has been speculated that IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation, by its release of mediators that increase vascular permeability, has an important role in the initiation of immune response in general.
NCI

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