Additional pages

imunoglobuliny – konstantní oblasti

The portion of an antibody that is invariant within a class of immunoglobulins. It is comprised of the carboxyl terminal half of both light chains and at least three quarters of each heavy chain starting from the carboxyl terminus and excludes the variable regions of the heavy and light chains.
NCI

The domains of the immunoglobulin molecules that are invariable in their amino acid sequence within any class or subclass of immunoglobulin. They confer biological as well as structural functions to immunoglobulins. One each on both the light chains and the heavy chains comprises the C-terminus half of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FAB FRAGMENT and two or three of them make up the rest of the heavy chains (all of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN FC FRAGMENT)
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – fragmenty

Partial immunoglobulin molecules resulting from selective cleavage by proteolytic enzymes or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobulinové Gm alotypy

Allelic variants of the gamma-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IMMUNOGLOBULIN GAMMA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobulinové idiotypy

Unique genetically-controlled determinants present on ANTIBODIES whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins (e.g., another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein). The idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen-binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it. The idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
MSH

unique, genetically controlled determinants present on antibodies whose specificity is limited to a single group of proteins such as another antibody molecule or an individual myeloma protein; the idiotype appears to represent the antigenicity of the antigen binding site of the antibody and to be genetically codetermined with it; the idiotypic determinants have been precisely located to the immunoglobulin variable region of both immunoglobin polypeptide chains.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobulinové Km alotypy

Allelic variants of the kappa light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN KAPPA-CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN GENES.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobulinové isotypy

The classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal. In man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
MSH

classes of immunoglobulins found in any species of animal; in man there are nine classes that migrate in five different groups in electrophoresis; they each consist of two light and two heavy protein chains, and each group has distinguishing structural and functional properties.
CSP

The genetic or structural type for the constant region of an antibody.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – vazebný region

A segment of the immunoglobulin heavy chains, encoded by the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAIN GENES in the J segment where, during the maturation of B-LYMPHOCYTES; the gene segment for the variable region upstream is joined to a constant region gene segment downstream. The exact position of joining of the two gene segments is variable and contributes to ANTIBODY DIVERSITY. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN J CHAINS; a separate polypeptide that serves as a linkage piece in polymeric IGA or IGM.
MSH

The portion of the light and heavy chains of immunoglobulin molecules where the variable and constant regions meet.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – spínací region

A site located in the INTRONS at the 5` end of each constant region segment of a immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) occur during IMMUNOGLOBULIN CLASS SWITCHING. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES) of IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS.
MSH

A site on a segment of a B-cell immunoglobulin heavy-chain gene where recombination (or rearrangement) can occur. It is involved in isotype or allotype switching and maturation of the immune response. Ig switch regions are found on genes encoding all five immunoglobulin heavy chains.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

hypervariabilní oblasti

Three regions (CDR1; CDR2 and CDR3) of amino acid sequence in the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION that are highly divergent. Together the CDRs from the light and heavy immunoglobulin chains form a surface that is complementary to the antigen. These regions are also present in other members of the immunoglobulin superfamily, for example, T-cell receptors (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL).
MSH

Within the variable domain of an antibody molecule are three regions called hypervariable regions, areas of high sequence diversity. These regions form the surfaces that are responsible for antigen binding interactions. Also known as complementarity determining region or hypervariable loop.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny

Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.
MSH

glycoproteins found in the blood that function as antibodies; the basic structure is a y shaped molecule consisting of two light polypeptide chains and two heavy polypeptide chains linked by disulfide bonds.
CSP

A protein that acts as an antibody. Immunoglobulins are made by B cells and plasma cells. An Ig is a type of glycoprotein with two heavy chains and two light chains.
NCI

there are two types of polypeptide chains responsible for the biological and immunological properties of the different immunoglobulins, the heavy chain and the light chain; they are linked by covalent and non-covalent forces to give a four-chain Y-shaped structure based on pairs of identical heavy and light chains; each chain consists of a variable region and a constant region which are coded for by different genes; some immunoglobulin classes occur as polymers of this basic monomer.
CSP

A preparation of plasma proteins derived from the pooled plasma of adult donors. Largely comprised of IgG antibodies, therapeutic immune globulin provides passive immunization by increasing the recipient`s serum levels of circulating antibodies. IgG antibodies have multiple functions, including binding to and neutralizing bacterial toxins; opsonization of pathogens; activation of complement; and suppression of pathogenic cytokines and phagocytes through binding to CD5, interleukin-1a (IL-1a), interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and T-cell receptors. Therapeutic immune globulin may diminish pathogenic mechanisms in some autoimmune diseases by binding to and inhibiting the activity of autoantibodies. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40109&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=40109&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C2701″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

Any of the structurally related glycoproteins that function as antibodies. They are divided into five classes (IGA, IGD, IGE, IGG, IGM) on the basis of structure and biological activity.
NCI

immune globulin, NOS


HL7V3.0

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – alfa-řetězce

The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN A. They have a molecular weight of approximately 58 kDa and contain about 470 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component bound covalently to their Fc fragment constant region.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – delta-řetězce

The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN D. They have a molecular weight of approximately 64 kDa and they contain about 500 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – epsilon-řetězce

The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN E. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 550 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and about three times more carbohydrate than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – Fab fragmenty

Part of an immunoglobulin antibody that binds a specific antigen and consists of both a light chain and part of a heavy chain. By comparison, natural antibodies consist of two heavy and two light chains. An FAB (fragment antibody) offers the advantages of smaller size and lower cross-reactivity compared to the complete antibody. (NCI04)
NCI

Univalent antigen-binding fragments composed of one entire IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAIN and the amino terminal end of one of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS from the hinge region, linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fab contains the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGIONS, which are part of the antigen-binding site, and the first IMMUNOGLOBULIN CONSTANT REGIONS. This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – Fc fragmenty

A protein product that results from the digestion of antibodies with papain and is comprised of the second and third constant regions of the antibody heavy chain.
NCI

Crystallizable fragments composed of the carboxy-terminal halves of both IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS linked to each other by disulfide bonds. Fc fragments contain the carboxy-terminal parts of the heavy chain constant regions that are responsible for the effector functions of an immunoglobulin (COMPLEMENT fixation, binding to the cell membrane via FC RECEPTORS, and placental transport). This fragment can be obtained by digestion of immunoglobulins with the proteolytic enzyme PAPAIN.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – gama-řetězce

Heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G having a molecular weight of approximately 51 kDa. They contain about 450 amino acid residues arranged in four domains and an oligosaccharide component covalently bound to the Fc fragment constant region. The gamma heavy chain subclasses (for example, gamma 1, gamma 2a, and gamma 2b) of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN G isotype subclasses (IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B) resemble each other more closely than the heavy chains of the other IMMUNOGLOBULIN ISOTYPES.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – těžké řetězce

A protein complex that consists of two heavy chains (gamma, alpha, delta, epsilon or mu). The larger of the two immunoglobulin chain types determines the immunoglobulin class (G, A, D, E or M, respectively). The heavy chain molecules exhibit the same structure and composition, which consists of constant, variable, and hypervariable regions.
NCI

The largest of polypeptide chains comprising immunoglobulins. They contain 450 to 600 amino acid residues per chain, and have molecular weights of 51-72 kDa.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – J-řetězce

A 15 kD “joining” peptide that forms one of the linkages between monomers of IMMUNOGLOBULIN A or IMMUNOGLOBULIN M in the formation of polymeric immunoglobulins. There is one J chain per one IgA dimer or one IgM pentamer. It is also involved in binding the polymeric immunoglobulins to POLYMERIC IMMUNOGLOBULIN RECEPTOR which is necessary for their transcytosis to the lumen. It is distinguished from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN JOINING REGION which is part of the IMMUNOGLOBULIN VARIABLE REGION of the immunoglobulin light and heavy chains.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – kappa-řetězce

Immunoglobulin Light Chain Kappa is one of two Ig light chain types. Each Ig molecule is typically composed of two heavy chains and two light chains. Ig kappa light chains contain a variable and a constant region. Kappa light chains are encoded by multiple V, J, and C gene segments, which are separated in the genomes of cells undifferentiated with regard to antibody gene expression. Diversity in the kappa light chain V region arises during differentiation of an activated (kappa-type) antibody-producing B-cell from variable recombination of kappa V genes with kappa J genes and somatic point mutation, which plays a major role in antibody diversity. (from OMIM and NCI)
NCI

One of the types of light chains of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – lambda-řetězce

Each antibody molecule is composed of two identical heavy chains and two identical light chains. Immunoglobulin Light Chain Lambda is one of two Ig light chain types. Lambda light chains are encoded by multiple V, J, and C gene segments, which are separated in the genome. During B cell development, a recombination event at the DNA level joins a single V segment with a J segment; the C segment is later joined by splicing at the RNA level. Recombination of many different V segments with several J segments provides a wide range of antigen recognition. Additional diversity is attained by junctional diversity, resulting from the random additional of nucleotides by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase, and by somatic hypermutation, which occurs during B cell maturation in the spleen and lymph nodes. (from LocusLink, OMIM, and NCI)
NCI

Immunoglobulin Light Chain Lambda is one of two Ig light chain types. Each Ig molecule is typically composed of two heavy chains and two light chains but Ig lambda light chains contain a variable and a constant region. Lambda light chains are encoded by multiple V, J, and C gene segments, which are separated in the genomes of cells undifferentiated with regard to antibody gene expression. During differentiation of an activated (lambda-type) antibody-producing B-cell, diversity in the lambda light chain V region arises from variable recombination of lambda V genes with lambda J genes and somatic point mutation, which plays a major role in antibody diversity. (from OMIM 147220 and NCI)
NCI

One of the types of light chain subunits of the immunoglobulins with a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – lehké řetězce

A protein complex that consists of two light chains (kappa and lambda). The light chain molecules are of the same structure and composition, consisting of constant, variable, and hypervariable regions.
NCI

Polypeptide chains, consisting of 211 to 217 amino acid residues and having a molecular weight of approximately 22 kDa. There are two major types of light chains, kappa and lambda. Two Ig light chains and two Ig heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) make one immunoglobulin molecule.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunoglobuliny – mu-řetězce

The class of heavy chains found in IMMUNOGLOBULIN M. They have a molecular weight of approximately 72 kDa and they contain about 57 amino acid residues arranged in five domains and have more oligosaccharide branches and a higher carbohydrate content than the heavy chains of IMMUNOGLOBULIN G.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunohistochemie

Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
MSH

Immunohistochemical staining techniques allow for the visualization of antigens via the sequential application of a specific antibody to the antigen (primary antibody), a secondary antibody to the primary antibody and an enzyme complex with a chromogenic substrate. The enzymatic activation of the chromogen results in a visible reaction product at the antigen site. The specimen may then be counterstained and coverslipped. Results are interpreted using a light microscope and aid in the differential diagnosis of pathophysiological processes, which may or may not be associated with a particular antigen.
NCI

A technique used to identify specific molecules in different kinds of tissue. The tissue is treated with antibodies that bind the specific molecule. These are made visible under a microscope by using a color reaction, a radioisotope, colloidal gold, or a fluorescent dye. Immunohistochemistry is used to help diagnose diseases, such as cancer, and to detect the presence of microorganisms. It is also used in basic research to understand how cells grow and differentiate (become more specialized).
NCI

Immunohistochemical staining techniques allow for the visualization of antigens via the sequential application of a specific antibody to the antigen (primary antibody), a secondary antibody to the primary antibody and an enzyme complex with a chromogenic substrate. The enzymatic activation of the chromogen results in a visible reaction product at the antigen site. The specimen may then be counterstained and coverslipped. Results are interpreted using a light microscope and aid in the differential diagnosis of pathophysiological processes, which may or may not be associated with a particular antigen.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunologický capping

An energy dependent process following the crosslinking of B CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS by multivalent ligands (bivalent anti-antibodies, LECTINS or ANTIGENS), on the B-cell surface. The crosslinked ligand-antigen receptor complexes collect in patches which flow to and aggregate at one pole of the cell to form a large mass – the cap. The caps may then be endocytosed or shed into the environment.
MSH

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

syndromy imunologické nedostatečnosti

Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
MSH

deficiency of immune response or a disorder characterized by deficient immune response; classified as antibody (B cell), cellular (T cell), or combined immunodeficiency, or phagocytic dysfunction disorders.
CSP

The inability of the body to produce an immune response.
NCI

A deficiency of immune response or a disorder characterized by deficient immune response.
NCI

A disorder in which the immune system is unable to mount an adequate immune response.
NCI

Syndromes in which there is a deficiency or defect in the mechanisms of immunity, either cellular or humoral.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunitní systém – nemoci

A disorder resulting from an abnormality in the immune system. — 2003 (NCI)
NCI

When your body encounters a germ, its first line of defense is your immune system. Specialized cells and organs help your body recognize and respond to foreign invaders. Your immune system even has its own circulatory system, called the lymphatic system.

If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be serious. Disorders of the immune system include

  • Allergy and asthma – inappropriate immune responses to substances that are usually harmless
  • Graft-vs.-host disease – a life-threatening reaction in people receiving organ transplants
  • Immune deficiency diseases – disorders in which your resistance to disease becomes dangerously low
  • Autoimmune diseases – diseases causing your immune system to attack your own body`s cells and tissues by mistake


MEDLINEPLUS

Disorders caused by abnormal or absent immunologic mechanisms, whether humoral, cell-mediated, or both.
MSH

A disorder resulting from an abnormality in the immune system. — 2003
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunologické faktory

Biologically active substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system.
MSH

substances whose activities affect or play a role in the functioning of the immune system; naturally or artificially synthesized immunologic agents, such as vaccines, toxins, toxoids, immune sera, antigens, cytokines, antitoxins, antibodies, immunoglobins, etc.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunologická paměť

The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
MSH

altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
CSP

renewed rapid production of an antibody on the second (or subsequent) encounter with the same antigen.
CSP

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunologický dohled

The theory that T-cells monitor cell surfaces and detect structural changes in the plasma membrane and/or surface antigens of virally or neoplastically transformed cells.
MSH

Immune Surveillance refers to processes by which transformed or virally infected cells are eliminated by a normal immune response.
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…

imunologické techniky

Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.
MSH

A test that uses the binding of antibodies to antigens to identify and measure certain substances. Immunoassays may be used to diagnose disease. Also, test results can provide information about a disease that may help in planning treatment (for example, when estrogen receptors are measured in breast cancer).
NCI

Price: $1.00

Loading Updating cart…