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ethylenchlorhydrin

Used as a solvent, in the manufacture of insecticides, and for treating sweet potatoes before planting. May cause nausea, vomiting, pains in head and chest, stupefaction. Irritates mucous membranes and causes kidney and liver degeneration.
MSH

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ethylendibromid

An effective soil fumigant, insecticide, and nematocide. In humans, it causes severe burning of skin and irritation of the eyes and respiratory tract. Prolonged inhalation may cause liver necrosis. It is also used in gasoline. Members of this group have caused liver and lung cancers in rodents. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), 1,2-dibromoethane may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen.
MSH

A clear, colorless, volatile liquid brominated hydrocarbon with a mild, sweet, chloroform-like odor that emits corrosive and toxic fumes when heated to decomposition. Ethylene dibromide is used as a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of resins, waxes, gums, dyes and pharmaceuticals and is used to produce vinyl bromide. Exposure to ethylene dibromide severely irritates the skin and causes depression and collapse. Ethylene dibromide affects DNA integrity by alkylation and is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen.
NCI

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ethylene dichloride

A clear, colorless, oily, synthetic, flammable liquid chlorinated hydrocarbon with a pleasant chloroform-like smell that emits toxic fumes of hydrochloric acid when heated to decomposition. Ethylene dichloride is primarily used to produce vinyl chloride. Inhalation exposure to this substance induces respiratory distress, nausea and vomiting and affects the central nervous system, liver and kidneys. It is mutagenic in animals and is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen. (NCI05)
NCI

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ethylendichloridy

Toxic, chlorinated, saturated hydrocarbons. Include both the 1,1- and 1,2-dichloro isomers. The latter is considerably more toxic. It has a sweet taste, ethereal odor and has been used as a fumigant and intoxicant among sniffers. Has many household and industrial uses.
MSH

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ethylenglykol

viscous dihydroxy alcohol solvent with a sweetish acrid taste; poisonous if ingested; used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
CSP

A colorless, odorless, viscous dihydroxy alcohol. It has a sweet taste, but is poisonous if ingested. Ethylene glycol is the most important glycol commercially available and is manufactured on a large scale in the United States. It is used as an antifreeze and coolant, in hydraulic fluids, and in the manufacture of low-freezing dynamites and resins.
MSH

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ethylenglykoly

An ethylene compound with two hydroxy groups (-OH) located on adjacent carbons. They are viscous and colorless liquids. Some are used as anesthetics or hypnotics. However, the class is best known for their use as a coolant or antifreeze.
MSH

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ethylenoxid

A colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure. Ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant. It is effective against most micro-organisms, including viruses. It is used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials. (From Reynolds, Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p794)
MSH

Colorless, odorless, flammable, toxic gaseous cyclic ether with a sweet ether-like smell. Ethylene oxide is used especially in the synthesis of ethylene glycol and as a sterilizing agent for medical supplies and foods, as a fumigant and as an insecticide. Exposure to this substance is highly irritating to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract, induces nausea and vomiting and causes central nervous system depression. Ethylene oxide is mutagenic in humans and chronic exposure is associated with an increased risk of leukemia, stomach cancer, pancreatic cancer and non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma. (NCI05)
NCI

colorless and flammable gas at room temperature and pressure, ethylene oxide is a bactericidal, fungicidal, and sporicidal disinfectant; used as a fumigant for foodstuffs and textiles and as an agent for the gaseous sterilization of heat-labile pharmaceutical and surgical materials.
CSP

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ethylenbis(dithiokarbamáty)

A class of thiocarbamate derivatives whose salts possess fungicidal activity.
MSH

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ethyleny

Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
MSH

simple organic gas, CH2=CH2, with a sweet taste; also, its derivatives.
CSP

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ethylenthiomočovina

A degradation product of ethylenebis(dithiocarbamate) fungicides. It has been found to be carcinogenic and to cause THYROID hyperplasia.
MSH

A greenish, crystalline compound with a faint amine smell and emits toxic fumes of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides when heated to decomposition. Ethylene thiourea is mainly used as an accelerator in the production of rubber, and in the manufacture of ethylene bisdithiocarbamate pesticides. This substance is teratogenic in animals and is reasonably anticipated to be a human carcinogen based on evidence of carcinogenicity in experimental animals. (NCI05)
NCI

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ethylestrenol

An anabolic steroid with some progestational activity and little androgenic effect.
MSH

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ethylmaleimid

A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
MSH

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chlorid ethylrtuťnatý

A highly toxic compound used as a fungicide for treating seeds.
MSH

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ethylrtuťné sloučeniny

Organic mercury compounds in which the mercury is attached to an ethyl group.
MSH

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ethylmorfin

A narcotic analgesic and antitussive. It is metabolized in the liver by ETHYLMORPHINE-N-DEMETHYLASE and used as an indicator of liver function.
MSH

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ethylmorfin-N-demethylasa

A drug-metabolizing enzyme of the hepatic microsomal oxidase system which catalyzes the oxidation of the N-methyl group of ethylmorphine with the formation of formaldehyde.
MSH

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ethylnitrosomočovina

A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
MSH

A nitrosourea with potential antineoplastic activity. Used experimentally as a mutagen and carcinogen, ethylnitrosourea alkylates DNA and proteins, thereby damaging DNA and inducing point mutations. (NCI04)
NCI

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ethylfenylefrin

A phenylephrine-related beta-1 adrenergic and alpha adrenergic agonist used as a cardiotonic and antihypotensive agent.
MSH

An adrenergic agonist with vasoconstrictive activity. Etilefrine selectively binds to and activates alpha-1-adrenergic receptors of the arteriolar and venous vasculature. This causes smooth muscle contraction and leads to a decrease in venous pooling and increase in blood pressure. This agent may also stimulate beta-1 adrenergic receptors, leading to positive chronotropic and inotropic effects.
NCI

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ethynodioldiacetát

A synthetic progestational hormone used alone or in combination with estrogens as an oral contraceptive.
MSH

The diacetate salt form of ethynodiol, a semi-synthetic progestational hormone agonist. Ethynodiol diacetate binds to cytoplasmic progesterone receptors in the reproductive system and subsequently activates progesterone receptor mediated gene expression. As a result of the negative feedback mechanism, luteinizing hormone (LH) release is inhibited, which leads to an inhibition of ovulation and an alteration in the cervical mucus and endometrium. In addition, ethynodiol diacetate has weak oestrogenic and androgenic properties.
NCI

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etidokain

A local anesthetic with rapid onset and long action, similar to BUPIVACAINE.
MSH

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kyselina etidronová

A diphosphonate which affects calcium metabolism. It inhibits ectopic calcification and slows down bone resorption and bone turnover.
MSH

As a member of the family of drugs known as bisphosphonates, etidronate differs from endogenous pyrophosphate in its resistance to enzymatic hydrolysis. This agent adsorbs to hydroxyapatite cells and reduces the number of osteoclasts, thereby inhibiting abnormal bone resorption. Etidronate may also directly stimulate bone formation by osteoblasts. (NCI)
NCI

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etimizol

A xanthine-related, putative nootropic drug.
MSH

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etiocholanolon

The 5-beta-reduced isomer of ANDROSTERONE. Etiocholanolone is a major metabolite of TESTOSTERONE and ANDROSTENEDIONE in many mammalian species including humans. It is excreted in the URINE.
MSH

A 17-ketosteroid which excreted in the urine as a metabolite of steroid hormones. The most common form of etiocholanolone present in the urine is the sulfate salt. This agent, also known as 5-isoandrosterone, may be used to evaluate adrenal cortex function, bone marrow performance and, in neoplastic disease, for immunostimulation. (NCI04)
NCI

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Etiology aspects

Used with diseases for causative agents including microorganisms and includes environmental and social factors and personal habits as contributing factors. It includes pathogenesis.
MSH

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etioporfyriny

Porphyrins with four methyl and four ethyl side chains attached to the pyrrole rings.
MSH

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etomidát

Imidazole derivative anesthetic and hypnotic with little effect on blood gases, ventilation, or the cardiovascular system. It has been proposed as an induction anesthetic.
MSH

An imidazole derivative with short-acting sedative, hypnotic, and general anesthetic properties. Etomidate appears to have gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) like effects, mediated through GABA-A receptor. The action enhances the inhibitory effect of GABA on the central nervous system by causing chloride channel opening events which leads to membrane hyperpolarization.
NCI

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etoposid

A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
MSH

glucopyranosyl substituted naphthalene derived from podophyllin; mutagen and immunosuppressant used in combination antineoplastic therapy for several human malignancies.
CSP

A drug used to treat testicular and small cell lung cancers. It is also being studied in the treatment of several other types of cancer. Vepesid blocks certain enzymes needed for cell division and DNA repair, and it may kill cancer cells. It is a type of podophyllotoxin derivative and a type of topoisomerase inhibitor.
NCI

A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, a substance extracted from the mandrake root Podophyllum peltatum. Possessing potent antineoplastic properties, etoposide binds to and inhibits topoisomerase II and its function in ligating cleaved DNA molecules, resulting in the accumulation of single- or double-strand DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, and apoptotic cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39207&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39207&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C491″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin, a substance extracted from the mandrake root Podophyllum peltatum. Possessing potent antineoplastic properties, etoposide binds to and inhibits topoisomerase II and its function in ligating cleaved DNA molecules, resulting in the accumulation of single- or double-strand DNA breaks, the inhibition of DNA replication and transcription, and apoptotic cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle. (NCI04)
NCI

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etorfin

A narcotic analgesic morphinan used as a sedative in veterinary practice.
MSH

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etretinát

An oral retinoid used in the treatment of keratotic genodermatosis, lichen planus, and psoriasis. Beneficial effects have also been claimed in the prophylaxis of epithelial neoplasia. The compound may be teratogenic.
MSH

A synthetic oral retinoid that is a prodrug of acitretin. Etretinate activates retinoid receptors, causing an induction of cell differentiation, inhibition of cell proliferation, and inhibition of tissue infiltration by inflammatory cells. Etretinate is no longer commercially available in the U.S. due to the extended potential for teratogenic effects related to its long half-life. (NCI04)
NCI

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Eubacterium

A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria found in cavities of man and animals, animal and plant products, infections of soft tissue, and soil. Some species may be pathogenic. No endospores are produced. The genus Eubacterium should not be confused with EUBACTERIA, one of the three domains of life.
MSH

A genus of aerobic, Gram positive, rod shaped bacterium assigned to the phylum Firmicutes and the family Eubacteriaceae.
NCI

Any bacteria that is not assigned to the species level but can be assigned to the Eubacterium genus level.
NCI

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