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isatin

An indole-dione that is obtained by oxidation of indigo blue. It is a MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITOR and high levels have been found in urine of PARKINSONISM patients.
MSH

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ischémie

A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
MSH

blood deficiency in an organ or tissue caused by a constriction or obstruction of its blood vessels.
CSP

a decrease in blood supply caused by blockage of blood vessel
CHV

Lack of blood supply to a part of the body. Ischemia may cause tissue damage due to the lack of oxygen and nutrients.
NCI

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os ischii

The most posterior and ventral bone making up the pelvis. (NCI)
NCI

The most posterior and ventral bone making up the pelvis.
NCI

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kyselina isethionová

A colorless, syrupy, strongly acidic liquid that can form detergents with oleic acid.
MSH

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islám

A monotheistic religion promulgated by the Prophet Mohammed with Allah as the deity.
MSH

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Islands

A land mass smaller than a continent that is surrounded by water.
NCI

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Langerhansovy ostrůvky

Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.
MSH

irregular microscopic structures, varying from a few to hundreds of cells, scattered throughout the pancreas and comprising its endocrine portion; cell types include: alpha, secreting glucagon; beta, secreting insulin; delta, secreting somatostatin; and PP, secreting pancreatic polypeptide.
CSP

A pancreatic cell that produces hormones (e.g., insulin and glucagon) that are secreted into the bloodstream. These hormones help control the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood.
NCI

The pancreatic tissue that contains the islets of Langerhans. It is responsible for the production and secretions of the pancreatic hormones.
NCI

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Het eiland Man

An island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

An island in the Irish Sea, between Great Britain and Ireland.
NCI

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nádor z ostrůvkových buněk

A benign tumor of the pancreatic ISLET CELLS. Usually it involves the INSULIN-producing PANCREATIC BETA CELLS, as in INSULINOMA, resulting in HYPERINSULINISM.
MSH

A benign endocrine neoplasm arising from the pancreas. It is separated from the normal pancreatic tissues by a thin collagenous capsule. It may secrete a hormone (e.g. insulin, gastrin) or it may be non-functional.
NCI

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isoamylasa

An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called “debranching enzyme”. EC 3.2.1.68.
MSH

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isoprotilátky

Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.
MSH

antibodies produced by one individual that react with antigens of another individual of the same species.
CSP

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isoantigeny

Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
MSH

antigen carried by an individual, which is capable of eliciting an immune response in genetically different individuals of the same species but not in the individual bearing it.
CSP

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isokarboxazid

An MAO inhibitor that is effective in the treatment of major depression, dysthymic disorder, and atypical depression. It also is useful in the treatment of panic disorder and the phobic disorders. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p311)
MSH

A hydralazine and monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor with antidepressant activity. Isocarboxazid blocks the breakdown (oxidative deamination) of biogenic amines by inhibiting MAO, thereby increasing the concentrations of norepinephrine and 5-hydroxytrytamine (5-HT) at central aminergic receptors. These neurotransmitters are involved in sustaining mood and emotions. The down-regulation of central beta-adrenergic and serotonergic receptors by chronic inhibition of MAO may also contribute to the antidepressant effects seen by isocarboxazid. (NCI05)
NCI

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isocitrátdehydrogenasa

An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate and NAD+ to yield 2-ketoglutarate, carbon dioxide, and NADH. It occurs in cell mitochondria. The enzyme requires Mg2+, Mn2+; it is activated by ADP, citrate, and Ca2+, and inhibited by NADH, NADPH, and ATP. The reaction is the key rate-limiting step of the citric acid (tricarboxylic) cycle. (From Dorland, 27th ed) (The NADP+ enzyme is EC 1.1.1.42.) EC 1.1.1.41.
MSH

converts isocitrate to alpha ketoglutarate.
CSP

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isocitrátlyasa

A key enzyme in the glyoxylate cycle. It catalyzes the conversion of isocitrate to succinate and glyoxylate. EC 4.1.3.1.
MSH

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isodesmosin

2-(4-Amino-4-carboxybutyl)-1-(5-amino-5-carboxypentyl)-3,5-bis(3-amino-3-carboxypropyl)pyridinium. A rare amino acid found in elastin, formed by condensation of four molecules of lysine into a pyridinium ring.
MSH

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isoelektrická fokusace

electrophoresis in which a pH gradient is established in a gel medium and proteins migrate until they reach the site (or focus) at which the pH is equal to their isoelectric point.
CSP

A type of gel electrophoresis in which charged molecules travel through a pH gradient. The molecules will come to stop at the point where the net charge on the molecule is equal to that of the surrounding gel.
NCI

Isoelectric Focusing


HL7V3.0

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isoelektrický bod

The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
MSH

condition in which a substance has a neutral charge; pH level above which the substance would act as a base and below which it would act as an acid.
CSP

The pH at which a molecule in solution has no net charge and does not migrate in an electric field.
NCI

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isoenzymy

Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
MSH

different form of the same enzyme, such as from another tissue or species, membrane-bound vs. soluble, secreted vs. intracellular, or oligomerized to a different degree.
CSP

The term “isoenzyme” or “isozyme” refers to variants of the same enzyme which can be separated on special conducting media using electrophoresis. It should apply only to those multiple forms of enzymes arising from genetically determined differences in primary structure and not to those derived by modification of the same primary sequence.
NCI

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isoetharin

Adrenergic beta-2 agonist used as bronchodilator for emphysema, bronchitis and asthma.
MSH

A beta-adrenergic receptor agonist with bronchodilator activity. Isoetharine selectively binds to beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle, thereby activating intracellular adenyl cyclase, an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3`,5`-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Increased cAMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, relieve bronchospasms, improve mucociliary clearance and reduce mediator substance release from inflammatory cells, especially from mast cells.
NCI

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isoflavony

3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.
MSH

A flavone with the phenyl group at C-3 instead of C-2.
NCI

An estrogen-like substance made by some plants, including the soy plant. Soy isoflavones are being studied in the prevention of cancer, hot flashes that occur with menopause, and osteoporosis (loss of bone density).
NCI

A class of polyphenolic compounds derived from the Fabaceae family with potential phytoestrogenic, cholesterol-reducing, chemotherapeutic and antioxidant activity. In isoflavones the phenyl group on the benzopyran ring is in position 3 relative to the oxygen of the ring. Most isoflavones for human consumption and that are currently studied are derived from soy beans.
NCI

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isofluran

A stable, non-explosive inhalation anesthetic, relatively free from significant side effects.
MSH

F2CHOCHCl-CF3; used as an inhalation anesthetic; may act via beta adrenergic or muscarinic receptors; adverse side effects are hypotension and risk of myocardial ischemia and cardiac arrest.
CSP

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isofluorofát

A di-isopropyl-fluorophosphate which is an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor used to investigate the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
MSH

irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor with actions similar to those of echothiophate; it is a powerful miotic used mainly in the treatment of glaucoma; its vapor is highly toxic and it is recommended that only solutions in arachis oil be used therapeutically.
CSP

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isolation & purification analysis

Used with bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa, and helminths for the obtaining of pure strains or for the demonstration of the presence of or identification of organisms by DNA analyses, immunologic, or other methods, including culture techniques. It is used also with biological substances and chemicals for the isolation and purification of the constituents.
MSH

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isoleucin

An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
MSH

essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins; an isomer of leucine; important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.
CSP

Amino acid with side chain -CH(CH3)CH2CH3.
NCI

One of nine essential amino acids in humans (present in dietary proteins), Isoleucine has diverse physiological functions, such as assisting wound healing, detoxification of nitrogenous wastes, stimulating immune function, and promoting secretion of several hormones. Necessary for hemoglobin formation and regulating blood sugar and energy levels, isoleucine is concentrated in muscle tissues in humans. Isoleucine is found especially in meats, fish, cheese, eggs, and most seeds and nuts. (NCI04)
NCI

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isoleucin-tRNA-ligasa

An enzyme that activates isoleucine with its specific transfer RNA. EC 6.1.1.5.
MSH

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isomaltosa

A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
MSH

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isomerasy

A class of enzymes that catalyze geometric or structural changes within a molecule to form a single product. The reactions do not involve a net change in the concentrations of compounds other than the substrate and the product.(from Dorland, 28th ed) EC 5.
MSH

An enzyme that transfers functional groups to catalyze the geometric or structural rearrangement of atoms within a given molecule to form an isomer of the original molecule.
NCI

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isomerie

The phenomenon whereby certain chemical compounds have structures that are different although the compounds possess the same elemental composition. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
MSH

substances that have the same chemical composition but differ in structural form.
CSP

One of two or more compounds that have the same chemical formula but different arrangements of the atoms within the molecules and that may have different physical/chemical properties.
NCI

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isometrická kontrakce

Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.
MSH

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