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izometrické cvičení

An exercise that is performed by exerting force against an immovable object or by holding an object in a static position.
NCI

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isoniazid

Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
MSH

antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic.
CSP

Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic
CHV

A synthetic derivative of nicotinic acid with anti-mycobacterial properties. Although its mechanism of action is still unclear, isoniazid appears to block the synthesis of mycolic acids, major components of the mycobacterial cell wall. This agent is only active against actively growing mycobacteria because, as a pro-drug, it requires activation in susceptible mycobacterial species. Isoniazid also interferes with mycobacterial metabolism of vitamin B6. Resistance occurs due to decreased bacterial wall penetration. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39484&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=39484&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C600″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

A synthetic derivative of nicotinic acid with anti-mycobacterial properties. Although its mechanism of action is still unclear, isoniazid appears to block the synthesis of mycolic acids, major components of the mycobacterial cell wall. This agent is only active against actively growing mycobacteria because, as a pro-drug, it requires activation in susceptible mycobacterial species. Isoniazid also interferes with mycobacterial metabolism of vitamin B6. Resistance occurs due to decreased bacterial wall penetration. (NCI04)
NCI

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kyseliny isonikotinové

Heterocyclic acids that are derivatives of 4-pyridinecarboxylic acid (isonicotinic acid).
MSH

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isopentenyladenosin

N(6)-[delta(3)-isopentenyl]adenosine. Isopentenyl derivative of adenosine which is a member of the cytokinin family of plant growth regulators.
MSH

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isoprinosin

An alkylamino-alcohol complex of inosine used in the treatment of a variety of viral infections. Unlike other antiviral agents, it acts by modifying or stimulating cell-mediated immune processes rather than acting on the virus directly.
MSH

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2-propanol

An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
MSH

An isomer of propyl alcohol with antibacterial properties. Although the exact mechanism of isopropanol`s disinfecting action is not known, it might kill cells by denaturing cell proteins and DNA, interfering with cellular metabolism, and dissolving cell lipo-protein membranes. Isopropanol is used in soaps and lotions as an antiseptic.
NCI

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isopropylthiogalaktosid

A non-metabolizable galactose analog that induces expression of the LAC OPERON.
MSH

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isoproterenol

Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.
MSH

synthetic adrenergic agent derived from norepinephrine, having powerful bronchodilator and cardiac stimulant action.
CSP

A synthetic catechol compound and potent beta adrenergic agonist with peripheral vasodilator, bronchodilator, and cardiac stimulating properties. Isoproterenol exerts its effect on the beta-1 adrenergic receptors in the myocardium, thereby increasing heart rate and cardiac output. In addition, isoproterenol acts on beta-2 adrenergic receptors in bronchiolar and vascular smooth muscle, thereby causing smooth muscle relaxation.
NCI

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isochinoliny

A group of compounds with the heterocyclic ring structure of benzo(c)pyridine. The ring structure is characteristic of the group of opium alkaloids such as papaverine. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
MSH

bicyclic aromatic ring structure with one meta nitrogen.
CSP

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isosorbid

1,4:3,6-Dianhydro D-glucitol. Chemically inert osmotic diuretic used mainly to treat hydrocephalus; also used in glaucoma.
MSH

An organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Isosorbide relaxes vascular smooth muscle by formation of the free radical nitric oxide (NO), which is identical to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). NO activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing the synthesis of cGMP within smooth muscle. Elevated cGMP levels in smooth muscle activate cGMP-dependent kinase activity that leads to release of sequestered Ca2+. In turn, free Ca+ triggers dephosphorylation of light chain myosin and relaxation of peripheral arteries and veins. In addition isosorbide relaxes coronary arteries, thereby increasing the blood circulation through the ischemic area.
NCI

a drug used to prevent or treat chest pain (angina).
CHV

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isosorbiddinitrát

A vasodilator used in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS. Its actions are similar to NITROGLYCERIN but with a slower onset of action.
MSH

The dinitrate salt form of isosorbide, an organic nitrate with vasodilator activity. Isosorbide dinitrate relaxes vascular smooth muscle by formation of the free radical nitric oxide (NO), which is identical to the endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF). NO activates guanylyl cyclase, thereby increasing the synthesis of cGMP within smooth muscle, resulting in dephosphorylation of light chain myosin and relaxation of peripheral arteries and veins. In addition, isosorbide dinitrate relaxes coronary arteries, thereby increasing the blood circulation through the ischemic area. (NCI05)
NCI

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Isospora

A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
MSH

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izotachoforéza

A nonlinear electrophoretic technique used to separate a variety of ionic compounds, ranging from small metal ions to large molecules like proteins. Unlike “linear” zone electrophoresis in which separating solute bands continually spread by diffusion or dispersion, isotachophoresis forms self-sharpening, adjacent zones of substantially pure solute whose concentrations often exceed several mgs/ml. In isotachophoresis a multianalyte sample is introduced between the leading electrolyte and the terminating electrolyte where the sample ions have lower electrophoretic mobilities than the leading ion but larger than the terminating ion. (From “Isotachophoresis” on the AES Web Site [Internet]. Madison, WI: The American Electrophoresis Society; c2000-2008 [cited 2009 Aug 20]. Available from http://www.aesociety.org/areas/isotachophoresis.php)
MSH

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isothiuronium

An undecenyl THIOUREA which may have topical anti-inflammatory activity.
MSH

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isotonická kontrakce

Muscle contraction with negligible change in the force of contraction but shortening of the distance between the origin and insertion.
MSH

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isotonické roztoky

Solutions having the same osmotic pressure as blood serum, or another solution with which they are compared. (From Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
MSH

A general purpose reagent is a chemical reagent that has general laboratory application, that is used to collect, prepare, and examine specimens from the human body for diagnostic histopathology, cytology, and hematology, and that is not labeled or otherwise intended for a specific diagnostic application. General purpose reagents include cytological preservatives, decalcifying reagents, fixatives and adhesives, tissue processing reagents, isotonic solutions, and pH buffers.
SPN

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isotopy – značkování

Techniques for labeling a substance with a stable or radioactive isotope. It is not used for articles involving labeled substances unless the methods of labeling are substantively discussed. Tracers that may be labeled include chemical substances, cells, or microorganisms.
MSH

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isotopy

Atomic species differing in mass number but having the same atomic number. (Grant & Hackh`s Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
MSH

Substances having the same number of protons in their nuclei and hence having the same atomic number, but differing in the number of neutrons and therefore, in the mass number. (from On-line Medical Dictionary)
NCI

A form of a chemical element in which the atoms have the same number of protons (part of the nucleus of an atom) but with a different number of neutrons (part of the nucleus of an atom). For example, carbon 12, carbon 13, and carbon 14 are isotopes of carbon. They all have six protons in the nucleus, but each has different number of neutrons. Isotopes may be used in certain medical tests and procedures.
NCI

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isotretinoin

A topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of ACNE VULGARIS and several other skin diseases. The drug has teratogenic and other adverse effects.
MSH

a topical dermatologic agent that is used in the treatment of acne vulgaris and several other skin diseases.
CSP

A drug that is used in the treatment of acne and psoriasis and is being studied in cancer prevention. It is a type of retinoid.
NCI

A naturally-occurring retinoic acid with potential antineoplastic activity. Isotretinoin binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs); activated RARs serve as transcription factors that promote cell differentiation and apoptosis. This agent also exhibits immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses and inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, thereby decreasing polyamine synthesis and keratinization.
NCI

A naturally-occurring retinoic acid with potential antineoplastic activity and teratogenic properties. 13-cis retinoic acid binds to and activates nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RAR), thereby regulating cell proliferation and differentiation. This agent also exhibits immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory responses and inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, thereby decreasing polyamine synthesis and keratinization. Check for “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42657&idtype=1″ active clinical trials or “http://www.cancer.gov/Search/ClinicalTrialsLink.aspx?id=42657&idtype=1&closed=1″ closed clinical trials using this agent. (“http://nciterms.nci.nih.gov:80/NCIBrowser/ConceptReport.jsp?dictionary=NCI_Thesaurus&code=C603″ NCI Thesaurus)
PDQ

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isoxazoly

Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
MSH

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isoxsuprin

A beta-adrenergic agonist that causes direct relaxation of uterine and vascular smooth muscle. Its vasodilating actions are greater on the arteries supplying skeletal muscle than on those supplying skin. It is used in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease and in premature labor.
MSH

A benzyl alcohol derivative with vasodilator activity. The mechanism of action of isoxsuprine hydrochloride is controversial, because isoxsuprine has beta-adrenergic activities that could not be offset by beta-adrenergic blockers. Although stimulation of the beta adrenergic receptor increases blood flow to produce vasodilatation, this agent may also have direct effects on the contractility of smooth muscle. Additionally, isoxsuprine causes relaxation of uterine smooth muscle and may also produce positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the myocardium.
NCI

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Izrael

Middle Eastern country bordering on the Mediterranean, republic established 1948, capital city is Jerusalem.
CSP

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon. (NCI)
NCI

A country in the Middle East, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Egypt and Lebanon. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Itálie

European country on the Mediterranean, capital city is Rome.
CSP

A country in Southern Europe, occupying a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Italy


HL7V3.0

A country in Southern Europe, occupying a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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ivermektin

A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
MSH

A macrocyclic lactone derived from Streptomyces avermitilis with antiparasitic activity. Ivermectin exerts its anthelmintic effect via activating glutamate-gated chloride channels expressed on nematode neurons and pharyngeal muscle cells. Distinct from the channel opening induced by endogenous glutamate transmitter, ivermectin-activated channels open very slowly but essentially irreversibly. As a result, neurons or muscle cells remain at either hyperpolarisation or depolarization state, thereby resulting in paralysis and death of the parasites. Ivermectin does not readily pass the mammal blood-brain barrier to the central nervous system where glutamate-gated chloride channels locate, hence the hosts are relatively resistant to the effects of this agent.
NCI

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Pobřeží slonoviny

A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
MSH

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia. (NCI)
NCI

A country in Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Ghana and Liberia. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Jakobův-Creutzfeldtův syndrom

A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
MSH

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rare, degenerative brain disorder. Symptoms usually start around age 60. Memory problems, behavior changes, vision problems and poor muscle coordination progress quickly to dementia, coma and death. Most patients die within a year.

The three main categories of CJD are

  • sporadic CJD, which occurs for no known reason
  • hereditary CJD, which runs in families
  • acquired CJD, which occurs from contact with infected tissue, usually during a medical procedure

Cattle can get a disease related to CJD called bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) or “mad cow disease.” There is concern that people can get a variant of CJD from eating beef from an infected animal, but there is no direct proof to support this.

NIH: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke


MEDLINEPLUS

a rare, incurable and often deadly brain disease
CHV

A rare transmittable degenerative disorder of the brain caused by prions. Morphologically it is characterized by spongiform degeneration of the cerebral and cerebellar cortex. Signs and symptoms include sleep disturbances, personality changes, aphasia, ataxia, muscle atrophy and weakness, visual loss, and myoclonus. It usually leads to death within a year from the onset of the disease.
NCI

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Jamajka

An island in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Kingston. It was discovered in 1494 by Columbus and was a Spanish colony 1509-1655 until captured by the English. Its flourishing slave trade was abolished in the 19th century. It was a British colony 1655-1958 and a territory of the West Indies Federation 1958-62. It achieved full independence in 1962. The name is from the Arawak Xaymaca, rich in springs or land of springs. (From Webster`s New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p564 & Room, Brewer`s Dictionary of Names, 1992, p267)
MSH

An island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba. (NCI)
NCI

An island in the Caribbean Sea, south of Cuba. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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pozdní infantilní neuronová ceroidlipofuscinóza

This type is caused by mutation in the CLN2 gene encoding tripeptidyl-peptidase I, a lysosomal serine protease.
MSH

Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis in which the signs and symptoms appear later in life.
NCI

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Japonsko

eastern Asian country comprising islands in the western Pacific, capital Tokyo.
CSP

A country in Eastern Asia, occupying an island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula. (NCI)
NCI

Description:Realm code for use of Japan


HL7V3.0

A country in Eastern Asia, occupying an island chain between the North Pacific Ocean and the Sea of Japan, east of the Korean Peninsula. (CIA World Factbook 2002)
NCI

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Amerikanen van Japanse komaf

any person with Japanese ethnic background whose home or birthplace is in the Americas.
CSP

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